Presentation on theme: "INDIGENOUS/TRADITIONAL AFRICAN EDUCATION Introduction Meaning of Indigenous Education Purpose and Objectives of Indigenous Education. Features of Indigenous/Traditional."— Presentation transcript:
INDIGENOUS/TRADITIONAL AFRICAN EDUCATION Introduction Meaning of Indigenous Education Purpose and Objectives of Indigenous Education. Features of Indigenous/Traditional African Education. Strengths Weaknesses
Introduction Education system in Africa existed before the coming of Islamic religion or Western civilization. All African societies had systems of educating their young ones knowledge, skills and values necessary for living in their societies. They were however, not recognized and Africans were considered as completely uneducated.
Education in Africa has passed through different periods; pre-colonial (Indigenous), colonial and post-colonial. At each period there are important features that need to be understood. Indigenous Education Indigenous Education is a system of education that existed in African societies before the coming of Islamic religion and Western civilization.
Purpose and Objectives The purpose of Indigenous African Education was to prepare the young generation into a useful and responsible adult in his or her society. The objectives were to enable young ones to: take their social responsibilities as adults in their home, village and tribes. acquire knowledge, skills and values relevant for living in their societies. be self reliant
Features of Indigenous/Traditional Education Traditional Education in Africa was culturally, artistically, religiously and recreationally integrated with the social life of the ethnic group. Learning of skills, social, cultural values and norms were not separated from their life. The education fitted the group and expected social roles in society. Education was utilitarian ; preparing members to engage in a particular type of life activity.
Had no formal school, building or organization. It took place any time and anywhere; under a tree, in the bush as people were hunting or collecting firewood or fruits. Girls’ education was different from that of boys. Girls were socialized to effectively learn the adult roles of motherhood, wife and other sex appropriate skills.
Youths were trained to prepare them for military, family, agricultural and cultural activities. The trainings included hunting, herding, farming, blacksmiths, carpentry, pot making and basket weaving depending on the life activities the particular ethnic group, clan or family was engaging. These trainings were necessary for making them worthy members of the society, learning survival skills for being self-dependent in their own environment.
Failure were non-existent, every effort was made, encouragement and incentives were provided so that every youth goes through. Mental and moral training were also provided. Moral instruction focused on accepted values and norms such as generosity, diligence, and hospitality. Teachers were not specific, elderly or any knowledgeable person was a teacher
Education provided was for effective adjustment and adaptation to the environment. Individuals learnt about weather, landscape, plants and animals. In the early childhood, the child’s education was largely in the hands of biological mother. Language training was received from the mother and the extended family. The community assumes the greater role as the child approaches adolescence.
METHODS General method was transmission. Observation and imitation; Children observed and imitated their parents practical crafts and skills which performed according to their capacities. Group instruction, group assignments and age groupings to experience a particular significant event. Private instruction by sisters, brothers or one of the parents were also provided.
Folk tales and stories were used not only to amuse and express feelings but to teach children: ideal forms of behavior; morality; inducting the youth into the moral, philosophical and cultural values of the community.
Learning by listening to elders, imitating or emulating them. Direct instruction; dos and don’ts Initiation rites and rituals were cultural devices used to inculcate the spirit of the community. Approaching adolescence children learn through myths, legends, folksongs and folktales, proverbs and dances preparing the child to adulthood
STRENGTHS The child was educated to know, internalize and practice appropriate sex, age and social roles. Taught the child to avoid undesirable behaviors. Education met the requirements of the society at that time. Objectives, scope and methods reflected the ways of life or cultural patterns of the clan.
Youths learned their own culture and gained ability to live in their own community and so developed sense of belonging to the culture. Education was for every one, none was excluded. People gained detailed knowledge of physical environment and the skills to exploit it. It inculcated sense of togetherness/unity, understanding the rights and obligations of each individual in a particular society. It was more practical.
Shortcomings Exclusive of others who did not belong to the particular ethnic group. Did not produce scientists, nor did produce great military that is why failed to resist the invasion of Western people. Has led to present use of traditional healing and farming which is not effective.
Taught strict obedience to elders’ rules and authority which were sometimes irrelevant. Education was inflexible, conservative and less innovative resulting to stagnation (unchanging from generation to generation). It demanded conformity, not creativity or individual uniqueness. Not an education for change. Not well structured