3 We Complete Your Success Content 1. 1.What is motivation? 2. 2.Comprehend people’s behavior at work through examining some theories of behavior. 3. 3.Make the work more interesting to the staff. 4. 4.Role of the manager in creating what motivate the staff.
4 We Complete Your Success Objectives 1. Define motivation from a management point of view. 2. Describe influences on behaviour of people with whom you work. 3. Explain factors of job enrichment that make work more attractive. 4. Describe the team leader’s role in motivating his work-team. 5. Apply job enrichment techniques to motivate your work-team.
5 We Complete Your Success Definition What is motivation?
6 We Complete Your Success Motivation ‘A conscious or unconscious driving force that arouses and directs action towards the achievement of a desired goal.’ Longman English Dictionary To motivate a person to do something you have to make them WANT to do it, NOT to OBLIGE them to do it.
8 We Complete Your Success Motivation What do you see?
9 We Complete Your Success Values, attitudes and behavior Values = things we see as important and desirable. Attitude = beliefs, feelings, values and dispositions to act in certain ways Behavior = an action that reflects an attitude controlled by value.
10 We Complete Your Success Some theories about human behavior Theory of Needs of Abraham Maslow. Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor. Theory of two Factors of Fredrick Herzberg. Theory of Expectancy. Hackman’s and Oldham’s viewpoints about the fundamental characteristics of the work that create an internal motivation.
11 We Complete Your Success Maslow’s Theory of Needs Physiological Food Air Water Sleep Physiological Food Air Water Sleep Safety Security Stability Peace Safety Security Stability Peace Social Acceptance Affection Belonging Friendship Social Acceptance Affection Belonging Friendship Esteem Achievement Confidence Self-respect Recognition Esteem Achievement Confidence Self-respect Recognition Self- actualization Personal development Total self- fulfillment Self- actualization Personal development Total self- fulfillment Hierarchy of Needs
12 We Complete Your Success THEORY X By nature people do not like to work and will avoid doing it if possible. People should be offered rewards to work, and threatened with punishment if they don’t. People, like being controlled, and directed to avoid responsibility, have little ambition and desire security. THEORY Y People like to work under the right conditions. If committed to objectives, people will direct and control, themselves rather than being controlled from above. People will be committed to the objective if getting enough personal satisfaction from work. People will learn to accept and to seek responsibility, if the conditions are right. Skill and creativity are widely distributed and generally under utilized. McGregor’s Theory X and Y
13 We Complete Your Success Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Factors causing job satisfaction are not the opposite of those that cause dissatisfaction. Motivating Factors Maintenance Factors &
14 We Complete Your Success Motivating factors cause job satisfaction
15 We Complete Your Success Maintenance factors Cause job dissatisfaction but have no positive effect on motivation
16 We Complete Your Success Conclusion Motivators factors are related to the work a person does. Maintenance factors are related to the environment where work is carried. The causes of satisfaction at work lie in the content of the job; the causes of dissatisfaction lie in the working environment.
17 We Complete Your Success Theory of Expectancy Motivation Results in Effort leads to improved Performance
18 We Complete Your Success Motivation RewardEffort Performance Motivation is a result of reward. Reward is a result of performance. Performance is a result of effort. Effort is a result of motivation. Motivation Effort Performance Reward Cycle
19 We Complete Your Success Theory of Expectancy Reward Motivation Performance Effort
20 We Complete Your Success Hackman & Oldman Internal Motivation Recognizes work significance Variety of skills Task identity Work Importance High Internal work motivation Experiences responsibility for work outcome Autonomy knows the result of his/her work Feedback from Job Final ResultWhat benefits worker gets The essential job characteristics
28 We Complete Your Success Job rotation and enlargement Moving employees from job to job giving them opportunities to perform a greater variety of tasks at the same level of responsibility. Expanding number of tasks performed usually at the same level of responsibility.
29 We Complete Your Success Redesigning the work to provide the staff with: more variety and responsibility; more opportunities for development of skills; more control over their present work; more work feedback about the work they are doing. Job enrichment
30 We Complete Your Success DO NOT motivate staff. They may increase the quantity of work but do not create opportunities for development MOTIVATES employees as it often gives them the chance to gain experience and improve their skills hence gives them the opportunity to develop and advance inside the company. Job enrichment
31 We Complete Your Success Remove unnecessary controls, increase responsibility and autonomy. Clarify goals. Provide feedback. Provide opportunities for development of skills and knowledge. Job enrichment
We Complete Your Success Is job enrichment right for you team?
33 We Complete Your Success Look at jobs where: job satisfaction is low; maintenance factors are costly; changes would not be expensive; lack of motivation is affecting performance. Job enrichment
34 We Complete Your Success 1.Resistance of change 2.Poor diagnosis 3.Lack of desire 4.Demand for rewards 5.Supervisors resistance Problems affecting job enrichment
35 We Complete Your Success Whatever your title, you are a team leader if you run a team. Motivating staff Team leaders are among other things: Coaches Facilitators Empowerment agents The role of team leaders
36 We Complete Your Success Set plans, organize, guide, leads members of his/her team in their effort to achieve the company’s set objectives to the best of their ability. Responsibility of the team leader
37 We Complete Your Success 1.Create the right kind of climate or atmosphere. 2.Give rewards where they’re deserved. 3.Promote the worth of the job. 4.Keep the work team informed. 5.Be fair in allocating work. 6.Make work fun. 7.Take account of the circumstances under which people have to work. 8.Give your team members scope for development 9.Avoid threats to security. 10.Make the team’s targets and objectives clear. What to do to motivate staff
38 We Complete Your Success To keep up morale and motivation: seek information, and pass on as clear a picture as possible; counter cynicism with a positive approach; keep the team occupied with meaningful work but do not overwhelm them with work; establish new mutually supportive relationship with members of the work team; acknowledge and discuss with remaining staff their possible feeling of guilt. The team leader in difficult circumstances Difficulties may be: the company is being reorganized or down- sized; colleagues being made redundant; uncertainty about the economic situation of the company; any other cause of uncertainty.
We Complete Your Success Review, questions and answers
41 We Complete Your Success Contact details SME MANAGEMENT SOLUTONS, IFC, World Bank Group, 1 st Floor Maersk House, 121 Louis Solomon Close, off Ahmadu Bello Way, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria. www.ifc.org Tel: +234 1 2799 400 Fax: +234 1 2793618-19
We Complete Your Success Goodbye And Thank You For Attending.