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MOTIVATION Define and explain motivation

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1 MOTIVATION Define and explain motivation
Distinguish between motivation and satisfaction Discuss the process of motivation Types of motivation Discuss some leading theories of motivation

2 MOTIVATION Some definitions
Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals- W.G.Scott. Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward. – Edwin B. Flippo. Motivation is the need or drive within an individual that urges him towards goal-oriented action

3 Motivation ≠ Satisfaction
Motivation is Drive and Effort to satisfy a want or a goal Satisfaction is the Contentment experienced when a want is satisfied

4 MOTIVATION The Motivation Process 1. Awareness of Need 2. Search for Action 3. Fulfillment of Need 4.Discovery of New Need

5 MOTIVATION The Motivation Process

6 MOTIVATION Types of Motivation
Motivation can be classified on the basis of: Approach (Positive, Negative). Incentives (Financial, Non-financial). Nature (Extrinsic, Intrinsic).

7 MOTIVATION Positive Motivation Rewards and incentive for employees
Necessary facilities Awards for best performance

8 MOTIVATION Negative Motivation Fear Punishment Demotion Layoff

9 MOTIVATION Financial Motivation Monitory benefits Wages and salaries
Bonus Fringe benefits Retirement benefits

10 MOTIVATION Non Financial Motivation Recognition
Greater involvement in decision-making Responsibility Challenging job Praise

11 MOTIVATION Extrinsic Motivation Allowances Bonuses Fringe benefits
Free housing Medical care

12 MOTIVATION Intrinsic Motivation Status Authority Challenging job
Participation in decision-making

1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory 2. McGregor’s X andY Theories 3. Ouchi’s Z theory 4. Herzberg’s Two-factor theory 5. McClelland’s Need theory 6. Vroom’s Expectancy theory. 7. Adelfer’s ERG theory

14 1. Douglas McGregor’s X and Y Theories
Theory X Theory Y 1. People, in general, dislike work. They avoid their duties and are basically lazy. 2. Most people are un-ambitious. They do not voluntarily accept any responsibility. 3. Most people lack creativity. They show no preference for learning anything new factors. 4. Satisfaction of physiological and safety needs alone is important for most people. Workers in general are only bothered about their salary, job security and such other extrinsic factors. 5. While at work, an employee needs to be closely supervised and watched. 1. People are not averse to work. Given the proper working conditions the workers would do their work with the kind of enthusiasm. They show for their other activities like playing and eating. 2. Workers are ambitious and they do come forward to accept responsibility.  3. Workers do have the potentials to be creative. If the management has a positive outlook, it will certainly encourage the workers to display their creative ideas and skills. 4. It is not correct to assume that only satisfaction of physiological and safety needs are important for most workers. The workers do many things to have their ego satisfied. There are workers with tremendous potentials who want to work to their maximum capabilities. 5. Workers need not be directed and closely supervised. They are good in what is called ‘self- direction’.

Theory X Managers Theory Y Managers Have little regard for people Tend to be very authoritarian Generally unlikely to motivate anyone to work willingly and well Pay attention to individual needs Unlikely to be authoritarian Boost morale of workers through incentives and rewards

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Human behaviour is directed towards the satisfaction of certain needs. Physiological Needs (ii) Safety Needs (iii) Social Needs (iv) Esteem Needs and (v) Self-actualization Needs



19 Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Needs Food Clothing Shelter

20 Hierarchy of Needs Safety Needs
Security of job / employment; resources; family; property; health Protection Law and order

21 Hierarchy of Needs Social Needs Friendship Association Affection Love

22 Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Needs Ego Status Recognition
Self respect by others

23 Hierarchy of Needs Self –Actualization Needs
The need to achieve our full potential

Herzberg, a clinical psychologist and pioneer of “job enrichment,” developed his motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.

25 Two Factor Motivational Theory
People are influenced by two factors: Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not lead to higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction. Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.

26 Two-Factor Motivational Theory
Examples of “Hygiene” Needs or Maintenance Factors The organization, its policies & administration Kind of supervision (leadership & management, including perceptions) Relationship with supervisor Work conditions (including ergonomics) Salary Status Job security Interpersonal relations

27 Two Factor Motivational Theory
Hygiene Needs People will strive to achieve “hygiene” needs because they are unhappy without them, but once satisfied, the effect soon wears off – satisfaction is temporary. (Chapman) Parallels with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Motivational Model

28 Two Factor Motivational Theory
True Motivators Achievement Recognition for achievement Work itself (interest in the task) Responsibility Growth and advancement

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