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Unit 6 Unit 6 Morphology 1. 2 It is a branch of linguistics which is concerned with  the relation between meaning and form, within words and between.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 6 Unit 6 Morphology 1. 2 It is a branch of linguistics which is concerned with  the relation between meaning and form, within words and between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 6 Unit 6 Morphology 1

2 2 It is a branch of linguistics which is concerned with  the relation between meaning and form, within words and between words,  word formation and structure of words.

3 Morpheme the smallest linguistic unit which has a meaning or grammatical function open + ed tour + ist + s im + prison + ment tree money 3

4 Morpheme A morpheme has two elements: 1.Form (written/spoken) 2.Meaning 4 (morph) form ‘meaning’ /bi:/ bee ‘animal’ morpheme morpheme bee

5 Morpheme vs. Word vs. Syllable 5

6 Morpheme vs. Word Morpheme is a smaller unit than a word. papers (1 word, 2 morphemes: paper-s) 6

7 Morpheme vs. Syllable Syllables are sound combinations and are not necessarily meaningful. paper (1 morpheme) / pe ɪ.pə / (2 syllables) 7

8 Convergence of categories cat, dog, key (one word, one morpheme, one syllable) word: cat morpheme: cat syllable: cat (all three categories converge on the same form, i.e. cat) 8

9 Free vs. Bound Morphemes 9

10 Free morphemes They can stand by themselves as single words. Potential to stand alone: I opened the window. Give me the documents, please. People are waiting outside. Chomsky and his colleagues 10

11 Bound morphemes They cannot normally stand alone, but are typically attached to another form (i.e. Another free morpheme). (They are not words.) (affixes, contracted forms) re- (return) -ist (typist) -ed (tested) -s (begins) ‘ll (I’ll) 11

12 12 Stem When free morphemes are used with bound morphemes, the basic word forms are known as stems. system + atic (suffix) systematic (free) (bound) (stem) dis (prefix) + regard disregard (free) (bound) (stem)

13 Lexical vs. Functional Morphemes 13

14 Lexical Morphemes (i.e.Content Words) Nouns (ordinary): white, man, house Adjectives: sad, sincere Verbs : open, break, draw Adverbs (of manner): fast, correctly 14

15 they carry the content of the messages we convey (they have meaning) 15

16 Mr. Penn has two, a one and a one. Today he the one but it in the on his to. When he was on his after his, he a on the next and it, it was his. It to Mr. Count. (content words deleted) 16

17  large number How many content words are there in English? Dictionary: essentially a list of content words 114,000 basic content words (Webster’s) (450,000 entries including derivatives & compounds) 17

18  open-ended (an unlimited number of new words can be added) Some recent additions: blog vegan podcast spam wac (adj) botox 18

19 Articles: the, a, an Auxiliary verbs: can, must, am Pronouns: he, she, her Conjunctions: but, and, or Prepositions: from, at, on etc. 19 Functional Morphemes (i.e.Function Words)

20  They have grammatical function rather than meaning. (we define the meanings of content words, but describe the use of function words, i.e. what they do in a sentence) but indicates contrast or introduces an alternative the indicates definiteness (the book is a definite book.) this is used to show things that are near. that is used to show things that are not near. in indicates location (place) he is used for a male subject 20

21  relate words in sentences Mr. Penn umbrellas, brown black. Took black left bus way work. Putting coat day’s work, saw dark blue umbrella hanging hook took thinking. Actually belonged Mr. Count. (function words deleted) Relations between events (verbs) and entities (nouns) are missing. 21

22  small number overall and in each category Overall: 320 function words in English Articles: 3 words 22

23  closed class (fixed number, changes very slow) 23

24 List of Function Words in English List of Function Words in English 24

25 25

26 D ERIVATONAL M ORPHEMES Derivational affixes change major grammatical category (v, n, adj, adv): friend (adj) friendly (adj) pay (v)payment (n) cloud (n)cloudy (adj) quiet (adj) quietly (adv) 26

27 b)They change meaning substantially: king (n) kingdom (n) (person vs. place) behave (v)misbehave (v) (opposite) (all prefixes are derivational: Prefixes do not change grammatical category, they change meaning) 27

28 They are not always regular N) +(-hood)= N brother +hood*friend+hood neighbour+hood*daughter+hood knight+hood*candle+hood 28

29 A derivational morpheme is attached before an inflectional morpheme does. neighbour- hood-s | | DA IA *neighbour-s-hood 29

30 INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES Inflectional Suffixes (regular inflection) They aren’t used to generate new words, but provide further information about the grammatical function of an existing word. (Inflection by affixes is not a word-formation process.) book books (not a different word) 30

31 a. They do not change the grammatical category: work (v) worked (v) small (adj) smaller (adj) John (n)John’s (n ) 31

32 b. They do not change the word’s existing meaning but give additional information about it: passenger (n)passengers (n / plural) sing (v) sings (v / pr.tense 3rd pers. sing. subj) c.They are very regular (few exceptions): -s (plural affix): (almost) all nouns except a few irregular nouns like feet, children, teeth -ed (past tense affix): all regular verbs 32

33 d. They are only suffixes in English / 8 inflectional affixes. -s (plural morpheme) chairs -s (3rd per.sing.present) runs -ing (progressive) running -ed (past tense) waited -ed (past participle) had waited -er (comparative) taller -est (superlative) tallest -’s, -s’ (possessive) Mary’s, The Jones’ 33

34 Allomorphs 34

35 Allomorphs phonological forms of a morpheme 35

36 Plurality Morpheme Orthographic variants: -s (books) -es (buses) Allomorphs (phonological variants):/s/ cats /z/ dogs /ız/ houses 36

37 Distribution of the allomorphs of the plurality morpheme (Rule) 37

38 cats /t/ books /k/ cups /p/ roofs /f/ 38 /s/ after most voiceless phonemes

39 /z/ after voiced phonemes (voiced consonants + vowels) lambs /m/ dogs /g/ bees /i:/ 39

40 /ız/ horses /s/ cheeses /z/ 40

41 the prefix in- the prefix in- In English, the negative prefix in has several allomorphs: Orthographic variants:in- (inaccurate) im- (impolite) il- (illogical) ir- (irreverent) 41

42 Thank You! 42

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