1.1 What is Science What are the goals of Science and what procedures are at the core of scientific methodology?
What is Science Science is a way of knowing. It is an organized way of gathering and analyzing information about the natural world. Science is a process. It provides natural explanations for events in our world. Science also helps make predictions about our world. Science helps cure disease. Science and technology go hand in hand.
Step 1 Observation Employing your 5 senses to perceive objects or events The act of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful orderly way GOOD OBSERVATIONS LEAD TO QUESTIONS OTHERS HAVE NOT THOUGHT OF
Step 2 Inferring and forming a hypothesis An inference is an assumption based on an observation or a logical interpretation based on what you already know Hypothesis is a scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it. It is an educated guess based on an observation “if-then” statement Often written in the form of an “if-then” statement
Step 3 Predictions &experimenting Many scientists make predictions Most hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which one variable is changed. This is called a controlled experiment. An experimenter changes 1 factor and then observes and measures what happens. Other factors in an experiment must be kept constant so they won't effect the outcome. These constant factors are called variables
Variables Independent variable- the manipulated variable the one that is deliberately changed Dependent variable- the responding variable- the one that is measured For example, a scientist is testing the effect of light and dark on the behavior of moths by turning a light on and off. The independent variable is the amount of light and the moth's reaction is the dependent variable. DRYMIX
Control Group vs. Experimental Group A group in a scientific experiment where the factor being tested is not applied so that it may serve as a standard for comparison against another group where the factor is applied.
Measuring quantitative data numbers qualitative data Involves quantitative data that can be measured in numbers &/or qualitative data information that isn’t numbers Sampling sample represent the entire population Technique of using a sample – a small part – to represent the entire population Analyze data to determine whether to accept or reject a hypothesis Analyze data to determine whether to accept or reject a hypothesis
Organizing Data – STEP 4 Involves placing observations and measurement (data) in order Graphs, charts, tables, or maps Graphs, charts, tables, or maps
Conclusion Step 5 Conclusions are made on the basis of facts, not observations drawn from data Often drawn from data gathered from a study or experiment support or reject the hypothesis Will either support or reject the hypothesis
Communication Step 6 share the results of their studies Scientists must share the results of their studies with other scientists (peers) Publishjournals Publish findings in journals scientific meetings Present their findings at scientific meetings unbiased Scientists must be unbiased Should not tamper with their data Only publish & report tested & proven ideas
Communication Sharing of information Sharing of information is essential to scientific process verification Subject to examination and verification by other scientists Allows scientists to build on the work of others
Theory vs. Law A scientific theory summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing. A theory is valid as long as there is no evidence to dispute it. Therefore, theories can be disproven. A law generalizes a body of observations. At the time it is made, no exceptions have been found to a law. Scientific laws explain things, but they do not describe them. One way to tell a law and a theory apart is to ask if the description gives you a means to explain 'why'.