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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES"— Presentation transcript:

The word environment is derived from the French word “Environ” meaning Surroundings. Every organisms is surrounded by materials and forces which constitute its environment. Environment creates favourable conditions for the existence and development of living organisms.

2 Enviromental science the scientific study of human interactions with the environment.
It is the branch of science concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment. Literally, environment means the surrounding external conditions influencing development or growth of people, animal or plants; living or working conditions etc.

3 This involves three questions:
1. What is Surrounded 2. By what Surrounded 3. Where Surrounded

4 DEFINITIONS Environment – The sum of total of all the living and non-living things around us influencing one another. Environmental Science– The study of the environment its biotic(biological) and abiotic components and their interrelationship.

5 Environmental Engineering–
The application of engineering principles to the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment and to the enhancement and protection of public health and welfare. Environmental Studies /Education– The process of educating the people for preserving quality environment

6 Types of Environment Natural environment
Natural environment is characterized by natural components. All biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) are created through a natural process. Natural components do not require any human support.

7 Components of the Environment
Man-made environment It is powerful environment agent modified using modern technologies according to his needs created by man. Components of the Environment Abiotic or Non-living components Biotic or Living components Energy components

8 Abiotic or Non-living or Physical components
Example : Air, water, soil and minerals. Abiotic components enter the body of living organisms directly or indirectly takepart in metabolic activities and then return to the environment.

9 Abiotic – three categories
1. Atmosphere 2. Lithosphere 3. Hydrosphere Atmosphere : Air envelopes the earth is knowns atmosphere. It extends upto 500 kms from the earth surface. It comprises 78% of Nitrogen, 21% of oxygen and 1% of other gases.

10 Structure of atmosphere
Sl no. Region Altitude in km Temperature in C Chemical species 1 Troposhere 0-18 15 to -56 N2,H2O,CO2,O2 2 Stratosphere 18-50 -56 to -2 Ozone 3 Mesosphere 50-85 -2 to -92 NO+, O2+ 4 Thermosphere 85-500 -92 to 1200 NO+, O+, O2+ 5 Exosphere Upto 1600 Very high He, H2


12 Composition of Atmospheric Air
Gas Relative %byVolume Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Argon (A) Carbon di oxide- CO2) Miscellaneous Total

13 Functions of atmosphere
It maintains the heat balance on the earth by absorbing the IR radiations The gaseous constituents play an important role in sustaining life on earth Oxygen supports life of living organisms Carbon-dioxide- essential for photosynthetic activity of plants Nitrogen – essential nutrient for plant growth

14 2.Lithosphere The soil and rock components of the earth Functions :
1. Home for human beings and wildlife 2. Storehouse of minerals and organic matter

15 3.Hydrosphere The aqueous envelope of the earth . Oceans, lakes,streams,rivers and water vapour constitute hydrosphere. 97% of earth water is in oceans. 3% is available as fresh water. Functions : 1. It is used for drinking purpose and also supports the aquatic life. 2. It is also used for irrigation, power production,industries and transport

16 Biotic or Living components
Example: Animals,plants and micro organism. Biosphere: The living organism live and interact with physical environment(soil, water and air) is called biosphere. Functions: Plants ↔ animals

17 Energy components The components of energy flows across biotic and abiotic components . Example : Solar energy, nuclear energy, geochemical energy, thermo electrical energy.

To get awareness and sensitivity to the total environment and its related problems. To motivate the active participation in environmental protection and improvement To develop skills for identifying and solving environmental problems To know the necessity of conservation of natural resources To evaluate environmental programmes interms of social,economic, ecological and aesthetic factors

19 Importance or significance of Environmental studies
People will understand the concept of need of development without destruction of environment. People can gain the knowledge of different types of environment and the effect of diff. envir. Hazards.

20 It inform the people About their role in protecting the envir
It inform the people About their role in protecting the envir. By demanding changes in laws and enforcement systems It have direct relation to the quality of life we live It develop a concern and respect for the environment

21 Need for Public awareness
Increasing population, urbanisation and poverty have generated pressure on the natural resources and lead to a degradation of the environment Supreme court initiated to the public through Government and Non-government agencies to take part to protect our environment

22 Public Participation and types
Public participation is useful in law making process and controlling the pollution activities Types: Pressure Group Watch dog Advisory council Enforcing the environmental laws

23 ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY: Study of ecosystems
ECOSYSTEM: A group of organisms interacting among themselves and with the environment exchanging energy and matter. BIOME: It is a small ecosystem within an ecosystem





2 Major components are there namely ABIOTIC and BIOTIC Structure of an ecosystem explains relationship between the A biotic and biotic components The relationship between the biotic components and a biotic components of an ecosystem is called 'holocoenosis A biotic components ECOSYSTEM Biotic components

29 Abiotic components These are the non living components collectively forming a community They are classified in to chemical and physical components Physical components involves energy, climate, raw materials living space air water soil sunlight etc., Chemical components involves the essential nutrient sources which may be organic like proteins lipids carbohydrates or inorganic like micro (Al Co Zn Cu) or macro nutrients ( C H O P N S K )

30 Biotic Components It comprises the living part of the environment, which includes the association of a number of interrelated populations belonging to different species in a common environment. The populations are that of animal community, plant community and microbial community. Biotic community is distinguished into autotrophs, heterotrophs and saprotrophs.


32 Autotrophs (Greek: auto - self, trophos - feeder) are also called producers, converters or transducers. These are photosynthetic plants, generally chlorophyll bearing, which synthesize high-energy complex organic compounds (food) from inorganic raw materials with the help of sunlight, and the process is referred as photosynthesis. Autotrophs form the basis of any biotic system. In terrestrial ecosystems, the Autotrophs are mainly the rooted plants.

33 In aquatic ecosystems, floating plants called phytoplankton and shallow water rooted plants called macrophytes are the dominant producers Heterotrophs (Gr: heteros - other; trophs - feeder) are called consumers, which are generally animals feeding on other organisms. Consumer's also referred as phagotrophs (phago - to ingest or swallow) or macroconsumers are mainly herbivores and carnivores. Herbivores are referred as First order consumers or primary consumers, as they feed directly on plants

34 For e.g., Terrestrial ecosystem consumers like cattle, deer, rabbit, grass hopper, etc.
Aquatic ecosystem consumers like protozoans, crustaceans, etc. Carnivores are animals, which feed or prey upon other animals. Primary carnivores or Second order consumers include the animals which feed on the herbivorous animals. For e.g., fox, frog, predatory birds, smaller fishes, snakes, etc. Secondary carnivores or Third order consumers include the animals, which feed on the primary carnivores. For e.g., wolf, peacock, owl, etc

35 Secondary carnivores are preyed upon by some larger carnivores.
Tertiary carnivores or Quaternary consumers include the animals, which feed on the secondary carnivores. For e.g., lion, tiger, etc. These are not eaten by any other animals. The larger carnivores, which cannot be preyed upon further are called top carnivores

36 Saprotrophs (Gr: sapros - rotten; trophos - feeder) are also called decomposers or reducers.
They break down the complex organic compounds of dead matter (of plants and animals). Decomposers do not ingest their food. Instead they secrete digestive enzymes into the dead and decaying plant and animal remains to digest the organic material. Enzymes act upon the complex organic compounds of the dead matter.

37 Decomposers absorb a part of the decomposition products for their own nourishment.
The remaining substances are added as minerals to the substratum (mineralisation). Released minerals are reused (utilised) as nutrients by the plants (producers).


39 Function of an Ecosystem
It is to allow flow of energy It is of three types namely primary secondary and tertiary Primary is to manufacture starch by photosynthesis Secondary is to distribute energy in the form of food to all consumers At tertiary level dead living systems are decomposed for cycling

40 Thus the functioning of an ecosystem can be understood by understanding the following terms
Energy and material flow Food chains Food webs Food pyramids

Energy is the capacity to do work. Solar energy is transformed into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis, and is stored in plant tissue and then transformed into mechanical and heat forms during metabolic activities. The energy, in the biological world, flows from the sun to plants and then to all heterotrophic organisms such as microorganisms, animals and man. Thus the energy flow through atmosphere to an ecosystem involves the radiation from sun was 50% absorbed by the atmosphere itself. From remaining 50% of radiations a few % absorbed by plants for the process of photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O sunlight --- C12H22O11 + 6O2 I law of thermodynamics: Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but one form of energy can be converted in to another form i.e. solar energy in to chemical energy II law of thermodynamics: Whenever energy is transformed there is a loss of energy through the release of heat i.e. the loss of energy takes place by respiration, running , hunting etc., the reaction during respiration is C12H22O11 + 6O  6CO2 + 6H2O


Nutrients are the elements essential for the growth of plants and animals. Elements needed in huge quantity are macro (O,C,H,N,P,Ca)and needed in minimum are called micro nutrients( B,Co,Sr,Zn,Cu) The cyclic flow of nutrients between the biotic and a biotic components is known as nutrient cycle CARBON CYCLE: Carbon is the basic component in all living organisms present in different forms as food like carbohydrates proteins lipids etc.. It is present in atmosphere as CO2 which was taken up by plants during photosynthesis and converted to carbohydrates (food) which moves through various food chains and finally the carbon present in the dead matter returned to the atmosphere as CO2 by microorganisms Some sources of CO2 are respiration of animals and plants, combustion of fuels and volcanic eruptions


45 NITROGEN CYCLE NITROGEN CYCLE 78% of atmospheric air is nitrogen
It is present in all biotic components in different forms of foods as proteins vitamins amino acids etc., The N2 from atmosphere is taken up by the green plants for biosynthesis of different food and used in metabolism The food move through the food chain after death the organic nitrogen decomposed by several microorganisms like nitrifying bacteria (nitrobacter, nitrosomonas) ammonifying bacteria in to nitrites, nitrates, ammonia which are again used by plants Some bacteria's convert nitrates in to molecular nitrogen called denitrifying bacteria's (pseudomonas , florescence) which is again released back in to atmosphere and cycle goes on


47 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Phosphorous is mainly present in the rocks and fossils and also in all biotic components in different forms Phosphate rocks are excavated by man to use ti as a fertilizer. Over usage of which moves through the surface run off in to the oceans rivers and lost in to deep sea sediments Sea birds eat sea fishes and their excreta returns phosphates to land surface Thus the sea birds and man consuming fish returns the phosphates lost to land Which the animals and plants use in their dissolved forms for their bio synthesis


Progressive replacement of one community by another till the development of a stable community in a particular area is called ecological succession There are two stages or community (group of plants or animals living in an area) Pioneer community is one who first group of organisms to establish their community Seres are the various developmental stages of a community in an area There are two types of succession namely primary and secondary Primary type starts with gradual establishment of a biotic community on a lifeless community. Depending on the area i.e if in water called hydrarch and if it is in dry area called xerarch Secondary succession involves establishment of a biotic community in an area where already other biotic communities exist.

50 Stages of Ecological succession
Nudation: developing a bare area without any life form Invasion: establishment of one more species on a bare area through migration followed by establishment For example migration of seeds brought about by wind water etc., these seeds then germinate and establishes their pioneer communities Competition: when no of individuals increases competition between same and different species arises for food water etc., Reaction: The above steps modify the environment and called as reaction. which affects certain existing species and replaced by some other new species which leads to seral communities Stabilization: It leads to the formation of a stable community which is in equilibrium with the environment


52 Food chain The sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem is known as food chain. In a grass land

53 Food chain in a pond and forest

54 Characteristics of food chain
In a food chain, a) there is repeated eating in which each group eats the smaller one and is eaten by the larger one. Thus, it involves a nutritive interaction between the biotic components of an ecosystem. b) the plants and animals which depend successively on one another form the limbs of a food chain. c) there is unidirectional flow of energy from sun to producers and then to a series of consumers of various types. Thus, a food chain is always straight and proceeds in a progressing straight line d) usually 80 to 90% of potential energy is lost as heat at each transfer on the basis of second law of thermodynamics (transformation of energy involves loss of unavailable energy). e) usually there are 4 or 5 trophic levels. Shorter food chains provide greater available energy and vice - versa. f) omnivores occupy more than one trophic level and, some organisms occupy different trophic positions in different food chains

55 Types of foodchain There are mainly two types of food chains operating in nature. a) Grazing food chain b) Detritus food chain. Grazing food chain is generally seen in ecosystems such as grassland, pond or lake where a substantial part of the net primary production is grazed on by herbivores (cattle and rodents). Usually upto 50% of the NPP is grazed on by these animals in their respective ecosystems and the remaining 50% goes to the decomposer organisms as dead organic matter. Thus, in these ecosystems, the food chain is herbivore based.

56 Food web Food web can be defined as, "a network of food chains which are interconnected at various trophic levels, so as to form a number of feeding connections amongst different organisms of a biotic community". Food webs are indispensable in ecosystems as they allow an organism to obtain its food from more than one type of organism of the lower trophic level.


58 Generally, a food web operates according to taste and food preferences of the organism, yet availability of food source and other compulsions are equally important. For e.g., tigers normally do not eat fish or crabs, but Sunderbans they are forced to feed on them in the absence of their natural prey.



61 A Food Web in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystem

62 Ecological pyramids Ecological pyramids can be defined as,
"a geographical representation of an ecological parameter like number of individuals or amount of biomass or amount of energy present in various trophic levels of a food chain with producer forming the base and top carnivores at the tip".

63 Graphical representation of the trophic structure is done by drawing ecological pyramids, where the basal, mid and top tiers show the parameter values for producers, herbivores and carnivores in the ecosytsem. An ecological pyramid may be upright (tapering towards the tip), or inverted (widens towards the tip) or spindle shaped (broader in the middle and narrow above and below).

64 On the basis of the parameters used, ecological pyramids are of three types.
Pyramid of Numbers Pyramid of Biomass Pyramid of Energy "Pyramid of numbers is the graphic representation of number of individuals per unit area of various trophic levels stepwise with producers forming the base and top carnivores the tip".

65 Pyramid of Numbers in a Grassland Ecosystem

66 The shape of the pyramid of numbers vary from ecosystem to ecosystem.
In aquatic ecosystems and herbaceous communities, autotrophs are present in large numbers per unit area. They support a lesser number of herbivores, which inturn support fewer carnivores

67 Pyramid of Numbers in a Aquatic Ecosystem

68 So, the producers are smallest sized but maximum in number while, top carnivores are larger in size but lesser in number, so these cannot be used as prey by another. Hence the pyramid of numbers is upright


70 In a parasitic food chain, for e. g
In a parasitic food chain, for e.g., an oak tree, the large tree provides food to several herbivorous birds. The birds support still larger population of ectoparasites leading to the formation of an inverted pyramid. When a large tree support larger number of herbivorous birds which inturn are eaten by carnivorous birds like falcon and eagle, which are smaller in number, it forms a spindle shaped pyramid.


72 Pyramid of biomass is the graphic representation of biomass present per unit area of different trophic levels, with producers at the base and top carnivores at the tip". The total amount of living or organic matter in an ecosystem at any time is called 'Biomass'. In a terrestrial ecosystem, the maximum biomass occurs in producers, and there is progressive decrease in biomass from lower to higher trophic levels. Thus, the pyramid of biomass in a terrestrial ecosystem is upright.


74 In an aquatic habitat the pyramid of biomass is inverted or spindle shaped where the biomass of trophic level depends upon the reproductive potential and longivity of the member.

75 Pyramid of energy is a graphic representation of the amount of energy trapped per unit time and area in different trophic level of a food chain with producers forming the base and the top carnivores at the tip".

76 Representation of Pyramid of Energy
Pyramid of energy is always upright. It is so because at each transfer about % of the energy available at lower trophic level is used up to overcome its entropy and to perform metabolic activities. Only 10% of the energy is available to next trophic level (as per Lindemann's ten percent rule).


78 Forest ecosystem In the Forest ecosystem animals are the consumers.
They influence the flow of energy and cycling of nutrients through systems as well as structure and composition of forests through their feeding behaviour and the disturbances that they create. In turn their abundance and diversity is influenced by the composition of the forest  and the various disturbances that occur in the forest. Animals in an ecosystem form the heterotrophic stratum or brown belt of an ecosystem . The animals in the ecosystem can be classified on the basis of their feeding habits into:- 1. Herbivores are animals that consume plants and get their energy by eating plants. They form the primary consumers of the ecosystem.Cow ,sheep ,goat ,deer,rabbit,horse ,zebra are some of the herbivorous animals. Carnivores or predators are animals that feed on the herbivores or other animals in order to derive energy and nutrients required for their diet.


80 They form the secondary consumers of the ecosystem
They form the secondary consumers of the ecosystem.Mammals like dogs,cats,mongoose ,hyennas; birds like hawks,eagle,falcon, reptiles like crocodile,snake,turtles are examples of carnivorous animals. The tertiary consumers are also carnivores that feed on primary consumers like herbivores and also feed on secondary consumers . Lion,tiger are examples of tertiary consumers. Scavengers are flesh eaters and eat the dead flesh from left over of the carnivores. Jackal,vultures are examples of scavengers. 4.Parasites are organism consumes blood or tissues of the host animal without killing the host 5.Decomposers break down complex compounds of dead tissues of producers and consumers,absorb some of the decomposition products and release simple substances consumable by autotrophic organisms. Decomposers include earthworms,bacteria, fungi,actinomycetes etc

The forest ecosystem is of 3 types-tropical rain forest,tropical deciduous forest and temperate coniferous forest. Tropical rain forest provides both shelter and food for huge number of animals which include birds like cuckoo bird,parrot ,swallows humming bird eagles;mammals like orangutans ,monkeys gibbons,tiger,foxes,hippopotamus,jaguar,reptiles like crocodiles,alligators,anaconda,flying gecko etc. Tropical deciduous forest contains animals like deer,elephants,sambars ,cheetahs,wild buffaloes tiger ,leopard.Birds ,reptiles,amphibians are also found in abundance.  Coniferous forests consists of rich and varied animal life which includes mammals like mouse deer,musk, rat,porcupine,rabbit,squirrels etc; insectivorous birds like grouse,jay cross bill etc and reptiles like snakes and lizards

82 Uses of forest Forests can be described as uncultivated and uninhabited pieces of land covered by trees and shrubs. Forests play a vital role in the life and culture of the people. They form an important renewable natural resource. India has about 63.5% million hectares of forests and forms 1/5th of the geographical area of the country. Forests are intimately linked with our culture and civilization. Forests are useful to us in many ways: Forests provides timber for the furniture and building Forests provides raw material for paper, board and plywood industry Forests provides fodder for cattle, sheep, goat and other animals Tropical deciduous forest contains animals like deer,elephants,sambars ,cheetahs,wild buffaloes tiger ,leopard.Birds ,reptiles,amphibians are also found in abundance.  Coniferous forests consists of rich and varied animal life which includes mammals like mouse deer,musk, rat,porcupine,rabbit,squirrels etc; insectivorous birds like grouse,jay cross bill etc and reptiles like snakes and lizards

83 Forests provides bamboo which is called poor man's timber
Forests gives protection to wild life Forests helps in balancing the carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere. During photosynthesis, plants release O2 and use CO2 thus, they put check on the green house effect. Forests regulate the earth's temperature and weather cycle. They enhance local rainfall Forests check soil erosion, landslides and also prevent floods Forests protect wild life Forests also provide fruits, nuts, gums, rubber, dyes, fibre, medicines, camphor, essential oils etc. Forests are major sources of various animal products such as honey, wax, tussore, lac etc

84 Grassland ecosystem Any unit that includes all the organisms i.e. the communities in a given area, interact with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity and material cycle (exchange of materials between living and non living components) within the system, known as an ecological system or ecosystem. The term ecosystem is derived from two different words, eco = environment ; system = an interacting, interdependent complex. About Ecosystem Grassland is a type of terrestrial ecosystem. Grasslands occupy a comparatively fewer area, roughly 19% of the earth’s surface. The various components of a grassland ecosystem are as follows


86 Abiotic components- These are nutrients present in soil and the aerial environment. Thus, the elements like C, H, O, N, P, S etc. are supplied by carbon dioxide, water, nitrates, phosphates and sulphates etc., present in air and soil of the grassland. Moreover, in addition to the above, some trace elements are also present in soil. Biotic components- These may be categorized as: 1. Producers- They are mainly grasses. Besides them a few herbs and shrubs also contribute to primary production. 2.  Consumers- These occur in the following sequence: a) Primary consumers- In grasslands, the herbivores feeding on grasses are mainly such grazing animals as cows, buffaloes, deer, sheep, rabbit, mouse etc. Besides them, there are also present some insects that feed on the leaves of grasses.

87 Secondary consumers- These are the carnivores feeding on herbivores. These include the animals like fox, jackals, snakes, frogs, lizards, birds etc. Sometimes the hawks feed on the secondary consumers, thus occupying tertiary consumer level in the food chain. 3. Decomposers- The microbes active in the decay of dead organic matter of different forms of higher life are fungi, and some bacteria and actinomycetes. They bring about the minerals back to the soil, thus making them available to the producers

88 Desert ecosystem A desert ecosystem may seems to be barren land and devoid of life but plants and animals do exist in desert. But their number of plants and animals is not as large as that in other ecosystems. A desert ecosystem is a type of arid ecosystem that exists where there is very little rainfall and the climate is usually extreme in harshness. Other arid ecosystems are semidesert, subdesert, steppe, and semiarid or arid grasslands. Due to the low moisture content in desert the biological activities are regulated by ephemeral water availability . These ecosystems are either barren or with scanty vegetation consisting of mainly thorny bushes. Deserts are classified as warm (hot) and cold (temperate) deserts The hot deserts are the Sahara in Northern Africa, Kalahari in Southern Africa, Thar in India, Atacama in South America, deserts of Mexico and Australia. The deserts of Iran and Turkey, Gobi desert of Mongolia, some deserts of Argentina are recognised as temperate or cold deserts


90 Plants in Desert Ecosystem
Plants in the desert ecosystem are generally dwarfed because of the lack of rainfall. The most common plant that is seen in the desert ecosystem is the cactus. More than hundreds of different types of cactus are found in desert ecosystem and each one has evolved to suit the particular desert ecosystem to which they are endemic. Other plants of desert ecosystem are saltbush and gravillias. Plants of the desert ecosystem have evolved with succulent bodies that can retain the precious moisture needed for growth and narrow needle like leaves that reduces the lose moisture easily. Other plants spread across the ground or grow under shades of larger plants

91 Animals in Desert Ecosystem
Animals present in the desert ecosystem include very few large mammals but camel is one of the prominent animals found in this environment. Other animals found in desert ecosystem includes rats, small rodents, rabbits, moles and fox like creatures. Burrowing creatures, snakes, insects, ants, birds, lizards, and beetles are regular inhabitants that are found in desert ecosystem Animals and other creatures present in desert ecosystem have managed to survive in the harsh climate, hot days and freezing nights, by controlling their body heat. It is essential for any desert ecosystem animals to adjust to the particular aspects of their environment. The fragile balance of the desert ecosystem is nowadays damaged by excess human activity.

92 Characteristics of Deserts
i) Most deserts receive some rain every year but not uniform. ii) Light green covering of annuals is seen just after rains. iii) Have scanty vegetation, clear skies, hot days and extremely cold nights. iv) Soil is rocky and encrusted with sand or salt. Long periods without precipitation and extreme temperature ( oC) conditions (arid lands) impose considerable restraints on the flora and fauna which inhabit there. Sandy storms are very frequent. Occur generally in rain shadow areas. Flora 1) Includes succulents such as Cacti and Euphorbias, which can store water in their tissues. 2) Trees with long spreading roots such as Acacia, Prosopis, Phoenix (dates) are found. 3) Ephemerals (short lived) such as Boerhaavia repens are seen only during rainy season.

93 Fauna Most desert animals are nocturnal and avoid the heat of the day by burrowing into the cooler soil. Animals include ants, locusts, lizards, Gila monster, coral snake, rattle snake, burrowing owls, Gambel's quail, kangaroo rats, rabbits, camel, skunk, badger foxes, jackals and desert cats. In general, the organisms having specialised structural and physiological and behavioural adaptations to withstand the extreme temperatures only can survive in a desert.

94 Grassland Ecosystem Introduction Types of grassland ecosystem
Features of different types of grassland Characteristics of grassland ecosystems Structure and function of grassland ecosystem

95 introduction It occupies about 20% of earth surface.
In addition some trees and shrubs also present. Limited grazing improves the net production grasslands. Over grazing leads to degradation.

96 Types of grassland ecosystem
Tropical grasslands Temperate grasslands Polar grasslands

97 Tropical grassland Found near the borders of tropical rain forests.
High temperature and moderate rainfall. It is also known as savanna type. Tall grasses,scattered shrubs,stunted trees. Animals- zebras, giraffes, antelope.

98 Temperate grassland Found in the centers of continent.
Characterised by very cold winters and hot summers. Intense grazing and summer fires, do not allow shrubs or trees to grow.

99 polar grassland Found in artic polar regions.
Characterised by severe cold and strong winds along with ice and snow. In summer annual plants grow. Animals- artic wolf, weasel, artic fox.

100 Characteristics of grassland ecosystems
It is a plain land occupied by grasses. Soil is very rich in nutrients and organic matter. It is ideal place for grazing animals. Characterised by low or uneven rainfall.

101 Features of different types of grassland &
Tropical grasslands Temperate grasslands Polar grasslands

102 Structure and function of grassland ecosystem
Abiotic components (e.g.,) Nutrients, C, H, O, N, P , S, etc. Biotic components 1. Producers e.g., Grasses, herbs and shrubs 2. Consumers a. Primary consumers (herbivores) (e.g.) cows, buffalos, deer, sheep, etc. b. Secondary consumers (Primary carnivores) (e.g.) Snakes, lizards, birds, Jackals, fox c. Tertiary Consumers (e.g.) Hawks, eagles, etc. 3. Decomposers e.g., bacteria and fungi

103 DESERT ECOSYSTEM Introduction Types of desert ecosystem
Features of different types of desert Characteristics of desert ecosystems Structure and function of desert ecosystem

104 introduction It occupies about 35% of our world`s land area.
Characterised by less than 25 cm rainfall. Atmosphere is dry.

105 Types of desert ecosystems
Tropical deserts Temperate deserts Cold deserts

106 Features of different types of deserts.
Tropical deserts are found in Africa; sahara desert. Rajasthan; thar desert. They are characterised by only few species, wind blown and sand dunes are common. Temperate deserts are found in South summer and very cold winter. Cold deserts are found in china-gobi desert. Cold winters and warm summers.

107 characteristics of deserts
Desert air is dry and the climate is hot. Annual rainfall is less than 25cm. Soil is very poor in nutrients and organic matter. Vegetation is poor.

108 Structure and function of desert ecosystem
Abiotic components (e.g.,) temperature, rainfall, sunlight, water, etc.temperature is very high. Biotic components 1. Producers e.g., Grasses, few trees, herbs and; succulent 2. Consumers (e.g.) squirrels, mice, foxes, rabbits, deer and reptiles, etc. dig holes. 3. Decomposers (e.g., bacteria and fungi-low dead organic matter.

109 AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM Introduction Types of aquatic life zone
Fresh water life Zone (examples : Ponds, Streams, Lakes, Rivers) Salt water life Zones (examples : Oceans, estuaries)

110 Aquatic ecosystems Ecosystem is an biological community of an area, of interacting organisms and their physical and chemical environment. Earth’s surface can be described by a series of interconnected ecosystems. Ecosystem can be classified into 2 main categories: Terrestrial ecosystems: where organisms and their environment interacts on landmasses. Aquatic ecosystems: where plants, animals and their physical environment interact in water. 

111 Types of Aquatic Ecosystems
Fresh water: Very small proportion of earth’s area that is only 0.8 percent of the earth’s surface is covered by them. Primary production in a fresh-water ecosystem is controlled by light and nutrient availability. Fresh water can be defined as the water that contains a relatively small amount of dissolved chemical compounds. It includes :Standing Water- lakes & ponds and Moving Water- rivers & streams

112 Significance of Different Types of Aquatic Ecosystems
The study of aquatic ecosystem helps to understand the biodiversity (flora and fauna)of the aquatic ecosystem and their interaction with the physical and chemical environment . Aquatic ecosystems are in danger mainly because of human activities like: Overfishing, Transportation, waste disposal , recreation and other activities which might harm the ecosystem


114 Fresh water ecosystem Pond Ecosystem
Introduction Characteristics and Features of Pond ecosystems Structure and function of Pond ecosystem

115 Structure and functions of the Pond ecosystem
Abiotic components (e.g.,) temperature, light, water and Organic and Inorganic Components etc.

116 Structure and function of Pond ecosystem –Biotic Components
1. Producers A. Phytoplankton e.g., Algae Small floating Plants like volvax, Pandorina, Anabaena, Cosmarium B. Microphytes e.g., Large floating plants and submerged plants like hydrilla, Jussiaea, Wolfia, demna

117 2. Consumers A. Primary Consumers (Zooplanktons) (e.g.) Protozoa, very small fish, ciliates, flagellates and protozoans B. Secondary Consumers (Carnivores) (e.g.) Insects like water beetles, and small fish C. Tertiary consumers e.g., large fish like game fish 3. Decomposers (e.g.) bacteria, fungi and flagellates

118 Fresh water ecosystem - Lake EcoSystem
Introduction Type of lakes Zones of Lake Characteristics and Features of Lake ecosystems Structure and function of Lake ecosystem

119 Types of Lakes Oligotrophic lakes Eutrophic lakes Dystrophic lakes
Volcanic lakes Meromictic lakes Artificial lakes

120 Zones of Lake Littoral Zones Limnetic Zone Profundal Zone Benthic Zone

121 Structure and function of the Lake ecosystem.
I. Abiotic components (e.g.,) temperature, light, proteins, lipids, turbidity, O2 and CO2

122 Structure and function of Lake ecosystem
Biotic components 1. Producers e.g., Phytoplankton, Algae and flagellates 2. Consumers A. Primary Consumers(Zooplanktons) (e.g.) Cilictes, protozogans, etc, B. Secondary Consumers(Carnivores) (e.g) Insects and small fishes C. Tertiary consumers e.g., large fishes like game fish 3. Decomposers (e.g.), bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes

Introduction Characteristics and Features of River or stream ecosystems Structure and function of river or stream ecosystem

124 Structure and function of the river or Stream ecosystem
I. Abiotic components (e.g.,) temperature, light, pH, Nutrients, Organic and inorganic components II. Biotic components 1. Producers e.g., Phytoplankton, Algae, water grasses, aquatic masses and amphibious plants 2. Consumers A. Primary Consumers (e.g.) Water insects, snails and fishes B. Secondary Consumers (e.g) Birds and Mammals 3. Decomposers (e.g., bacteria, and fungi

125 Standing Water- lakes & ponds:
Standing water ecosystems are known as Lentic ecosystems such as lakes and ponds. The  organisms in lentic ecosystem includs algae, rooted and floating-leaved plants, invertebrates such as crabs, shrimps, crayfish, clams etc, amphibians such as frogs and salamanders; and reptiles like alligators and water snakes.

126 Moving Water- rivers & streams:
flowing-water ecosystems are known as Lotic ecosystems with water flowing in uniform direction and in a unidirectional way. Examples are rivers and streams, which harbor several species of insects and fishes. Crustaceans like crayfish and crabs; and mollusks such as clams and limpets


128 Estuaries Areas where freshwater dumps into ocean.
So the water is neither truly fresh water, since it has salt content, but it is also not consider salt water because it has a lower level of salt than the ocean.  Estuaries are always productive and has rich biodiversity. Organisms are well adapted to varying levels of salinity. Wetlands- bogs/fens, swamps, marshes: Here the water is completely or partially shallow.

129 Has a rich biodiversity because they receive plenty of sunlight which supports life.
 Plants include water lilies, mangrove, tamarack and sedges are commonly found in wetlands. Various species of reptiles and amphibians are also found in wetlands.

Characteristics and Features of ESTUARINE ecosystems Structure and function of ESTUARINE ecosystem

131 Structure and function of the ESTUARINE ecosystem
Abiotic components (e.g.,) temperature, pH, Na, K, salts and various nutrians Biotic components 1. Producers e.g., Phytoplankton, marsh grasses, sea weeds, and sea grasses 2. Consumers (e.g) Oysters, crabs, sea birds, small fishes 3. Decomposers (e.g., bacteria, fungi and actenomycetous


133 Marine Ecosystem About 71% of the earths surface is covered by marine ecosystem. Marine ecosystem involves: Shorelines, Coral Reefs, Open Ocean Shorelines : are where oceans and seas meet land. Since its close to the sea its always prone to hurricanes and erosion.Habitat fo burrowing animals. Coral Reefs:  Cover less than 1% of the oceans.Also known as “Rainforests of sea”. These  are clear warm shallow sea’s.Made up of as a result of accumulation of calcium carbonate deposited by marine organisms like corals and shellfish. Open Ocean: Oceans have a great impact on the biosphere.Its the source of rainfall.  ocean temperatures determine climate and wind patterns


Introduction Zones of oceans Characteristics and Features of OCEANS ecosystems Structure and function of OCEAN ecosystem

136 Zones of oceans Coastal Zones Open Sea Euphoric zone Bathyal Zone
Abyssal zone

137 Structure and function of the OCEAN ecosystem
Abiotic components (e.g.,) temperature, light, NaCl, K, Ca, and Mg salts Biotic components 1. Producers e.g., Phytoplankton(Diatoms, unicellular Algae), marine plants(sea wheats) 2. Consumers A. Primary Consumers (e.g.) Crustaceans, moiluses, fish B. Secondary Consumers (e.g) Herring Sahd, mackerel, etc. C. Tertiary Consumers (e.g) Cod, Haddock 3. Decomposers (e.g., bacteria, and fungi


139 INTRODUCTION Bio means ‘life’ and diversity means ‘variety’, hence biodiversity refers wide variety of life on the earth. Our planet earth contains more than 20 million species of organisms. Only 1.4 million species have been identified so far These species differ widely from one another. This variation in living organisms is called biodiversity.

140 Diversification in the species is influenced by various physical and climatic factors, resulting in the production of new sub-species. The species which are unable to adjust with the new environment gradually become extinct. Definition: Biodiversity is defined as “the variety and variability among all the groups of living organisms and the ecosystem in which they occur.”

1.Biodiversity is very important for human life, as we depend on plants, micro organisms, earth’s animals for our food, medicine and industrial products. 2.protects the fresh air, clean water and land. 3.important for forestry, fisheries and agriculture, which depend on rich variety of various biological resources available in nature. 4.Loss of biodiversity has serious economic and social cost for any country.

142 Loss of biodiversity The farmers prefer hybrid seeds, as a result, many plant species become extinct. for the production of drugs the pharmaceutical companies collect wild plants, so several medicinal plants now become extinct. Tropical forest is the main sources of world’s medicine. Every year these forests are disappearing due to the agriculture, mining, logging. Examples Taxus baccate, a tree growing in sub-Himalayan regions, once believed to be of no value is now found to be effective against cancer. However, this plant has become an endangered species now.

143 Classification (or) Levels of Biodiversity
Biodiversity is generally classified into three types 1. Genetic diversity. 2. Species diversity. 3. Community (or) Ecosystem diversity

144 1. Genetic diversity. Genetic
A species with different genetic characteristics is known as sub-species or “genera”. Genetic diversity is the diversity within species within individual species, there are number of varieties, which are slightly different from one another. These differences are due to differences in the combination of genes. Genes are the basic units of hereditary information transmitted from one generation to other.

145 There are number of teak wood varieties found available.
Examples: Rice varieties : All rice varieties belong to the species “oryzasativa” but there are thousands of rice varieties, which show variation at the genetic level differ in their size, shape, color and nutrient content. 2. Teak wood varieties: There are number of teak wood varieties found available. Indian teak, Burma teak, malasian teak etc

146 . 2.Species diversity Species : A discrete group of organisms of the same kind is known as species Species diversity is the diversity between different species. The sum of varieties of all the living organisms at the species level is known as species diversity. EXAMPLE. PLANT SPECIES: APPLE.MANGO,GRAPES,WHEAT,RICE. ANIMAL SPECIES : LION,TIGER,ELEPHANT,DEER.

147 The different sample areas showing species richness (sample area 1),
Species evenness (sample area 2) diversity due to taxonomically unrelated species (sample area 3)

148 3.COMMUNITY DIVERSITY It is a set of biotic componenents interacting with one another and wit abiotic components. The diversity at the ecological or habit level is known as ecosystem diversity. A large region with different ecosystems can be considered as ecosystem diversity. Example: River eco system; The river which include the fish, aquatic insects, mussels and variety of plants that have adapted. Thus the ecosystem diversity is the aggregate of different environmental types in a region. It explains the interaction between living organisms and physical environment in an ecosystem.

Biosphere is a life supporting system to the human beings. It is the combination of different organisms. Each organisms in the bio sphere has its own significance. Biodiversity is vital for healthy biosphere Biodiversity is must for the stability and proper functioning of the biosphere .


151 CONSUMPTIVE USE VALUE These are direct use values, where the biodiversity products are harvested and consumed directly. EXAMPLES; FOOD ,DRUG ,FUEL, etc. 1.Food: A large number of wild plants are consumed by human beings as food. EXAMPLES cerepogia bulbosa: Central India and western ghats. Codonopsis: Himalayan region cicer microphyllum: Kashmir Insects: molluscs, spiders, and wild herbivores are consumed by many tribal and non-tribal communities in India.

152 Food



155 DRUGS Around 70% of modern medicines are derived from plant and plant extracts. 20,000 plant species are believed to be used medicinally, particularly in the tration system of unani, ayurvedha and sidha. Examples: Germany; 2,500 species of plants for medicine in Homeopathy India ; 3,000 species of plants for medicine in Ayurvedha, Homeopathy and unani Primary health care; 85% of global community plants

156 Arthritis; bee-sting venom for latest medicinal science.
Life saving drugs like quinine (malaria), reserpine (hypertension), penicillin (antibiotic) and Morphine 9pain kill) are all of plant origin. Peepal tree leaves, trunk and roots: curing fever, cough, stomach and skin disease Neem tree: 30 medicines prepared and very effective for stomach oilments, eye irritations, skin eruptions and diabetics. Maxican yarn has been proved as a versatile to produce birth control in human beings.

157 Medicinal plants

158 Fuel Fire woods are directly consumed by villagers, tribals.
The fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas are also the products of fossilized biodiversity.

159 PRODUCTIVE USE VALUES Bio diversity products have obtained a commercial value. These products are marketed and sold. These products may be derived from the animals and plants. ANIMAL PRODUCTS SILK- SILK WORM WOOL- SHEEP MUSK- MUSKDEER TUSK – ELEPHANTS LEATHER- ALL ANIMALS FOOD- FISH AND ANIMALS


161 PLANT PRODUCTS (a) Rice accounts for 22% of the cropped area and
WOOD- PAPER, PLYWOOD, PULP, RAILWAYSLEEPER INDUSTRY. COTTON- TEXTILE INDUSTRY FRUITS,VEGETABLES- FOOD INDUSTRY. LEATHER- LEATHER INDUSTRY IVORY- IVORY WORKS PEARL- PEARLS INDUSTRY. (a) Rice accounts for 22% of the cropped area and cereals accounts for 39% of the cropped area (b) Oil seed production also helped in saving large amount of foreign exchange spent on importing edible oils.

162 SOCIAL VALUES Social value of the biodiversity refers to the manner in which the bio-resources are used to the society. These values are associated with the social life, religion and spiritual aspects of the people. Examples: HOLY PLANTS- TULSI, PEEPAL, LOTUS. HOLY ANIMALS- COW ,SNAKE, BULL, PEACOCK,RAT.



165 ETHICAL VALUES It involves ethical issues like “all life must be preserved” In India and in other countries biodiversity is considered to have great value on religious and cultural basis. Our rich heritage teaches us to worship plats, animals, rivers and mountains. It is existence in nature gives as pleasure. Examples: The river ganga is holy river. Vembu, tulsi, vengai are worshipped by tamilians Kangaroo,zebra,giraffe exist in nature.


167 AESTHESTIC VALUE The beautiful nature of plants and animals insist us to protect the biodiversity. The most important aesthetic value of biodiversity is eco-tourism. Examples: 1.Eco-tourism: people from far place spent a lot of time and money to visit the beautiful areas, where they can enjoy the aesthetic value of biodiversity. This type of tourism is called eco-tourism.

168 2. The pleasant music of wild birds
colour of butterfly colour of flowers colour of peacocks. Are very important aesthetic value.




172 OPTION VALUES The option values are the potentials of biodiversity that are presently unknown and need to be known. The optional values of biodiversity suggests that any species may be proved to be a valuable species after someday. Examples: The growing biotechnology field is searching a species for causing the disease of cancer and AIDS. Medicinal plants and herbs play a very important role in our Indian economic growth.

Total number of living species in the world are about 20 million. But, of which only about 1.5 million species are found and given scientific names. Tropical deforestation alone is reducing the biodiversity by 0.5% every year. Terrestrial biodiversity (or) Biomass: It is the largest ecological units present in different geographic areas and are named in different ways. Examples; Tropical rain forests, Savannas, desert, tundra, etc.

174 Tropical rain forests:
These are earths largest storehouse of biodiversity. They are inhabited by millions of species of plants, insects, birds, amphibians and mammals. About 50-75%of global biodiversity lies in these tropical rain forests .

More than 25% of the worlds prescription drugs are extracted from plants growing in tropical forest. Examples; About 3000 plants identified by NCRI as cancer fighting chemicals. 70% is derived from tropical rain forest. Extracts from creeping vines at Cameroon effective in the inhibition of AIDS virus.

176 (b) FLOWERING PLANTS It has been estimated that nearly 1,30,000 flowering plants are available. we know only1-3%. PROTECTION OF TROPICAL RAIN FOREST: Thus it is essential to project our tropical rain forests. Silent valley in kerala is only place in India. In order to protect our only tropical rain forest biodiversity, silent valley Hydroelectric project was abandoned.

They have much less biodiversity, globally, they have nearly, 1,70,000 Flowering plants. 30,000 Vertebrates 2,50,000 Other group of species.


179 MARINE DIVERSITY Marine diversity is much higher than terrestrial biodiversity, but it is less known and described. Estuaries, coastal waters, oceans are biologically diverse but the diversity is very low. sea cradle of every phylum. Out of the 35 existing phyla of multicellular animals, 34 are marine.

180 TAXNOMIC GROUP NUMBER Protozoans 31,000 Bacteria 5,000 Algae 27,000 Fungi 45,000 Higher plants 2,50,000 Jelly fish, Coarls 10,000 sponges

181 Earthworms 36,000 Insects 7,50,000 Snails, Slugs 70,000 Fish 22,000 Amphibians 4,000 Reptiles 5,000 Mammals Birds 9,000 TOTAL 1,400,000

India is a second largest- 5% of world’s biodiversity and 2% of the earth surface. Rank of India biodiversity: 10 rank- plant rich of world 11 rank- endemic species of higher vertebrates. 6 rank- centers of diversity and origin of agricultural crops

183 MEDICINAL VALUE More than 2000 medicinal plants are cultivated in India, which can cure many disease. Example: Tulsi and Neem Turmeric – anticarcinogen

184 COMMERCIAL VALUE Sandal wood. It is sold in abroad.
Tobacco- Indian tobacco-high nicotin Edible mushrooms Ornamental plants flowers and fruits More than100 species microorganisms were collected from Indian soils and cultured, developed and formulated in the abroad laboratories.

Point richness: It refers no.of species that can be found at single point in a given space. Alpha richness or Alpha diversity: It refers no.of species found in a small homogeneous area. It is strongly correlated with physical variables .

186 Beta richness or Beta diversity: It refers to the rate of change in species composition across different habitats. Gamma richness or Gamma diversity: It refers to the rate of change across large landscape.

187 Community and ecosystem diversity
Diversity at the level of community and ecosystem exists along 3 levels. It could be within-community diversity (alpha diversity), between-communities diversity (beta diversity) or diversity of the habitats over the total landscape or geographical area (gamma diversity).

The distribution of plants and animals among different districts of tamilnadu is uneven. Examples: There are some dense forest in salem district. Western ghats has 1500 species of plants, 50 species of mammals and 90 reptiles species. Birds of several species is coming to vedanthangal from far off places. Elephant sanctuaries at anaimalai. Tiger sanctuary at mundanthurai.

189 MEGA DIVERSITY There are nearly 170 countries in the world and 12 of them contain 70% of our planets biodiversity. Mega diversity regions: The following 12 countries, Australia, brazil, china, Colombia, Ecuador, U.S, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Peru and Democratic republic of the Congo regions are known as mega diversity regions. These countries have the worlds selected few rich floral and faunal zones.

India one among 12 mega-diversity countries in the world. 89,450 animal species-7.31% of global faunal species 47,000 plant species -10.8% of world floral species The loss of biodiversity or endemim is about 33%

The species which are confined to a particular are called endemic species. Our country has a rich endemic flora and fauna. About 33% of the flowring plants, 53% of fresh water fishes, 60% amphibians , 36% reptiles and 10% mammalian are endemic species. 1.Plant diversity: 5000 flowering plants and 166 crop plant species have their origin in India. 2.marine diversity: More than 340 coral species of the world are found here. Mangrove and sea grasses are also found in our country.

192 3. Agro-diversity: There are 167 crop species and wild relatives
3.Agro-diversity: There are 167 crop species and wild relatives. India is considered to be the centre of origin of 30,000 to 50,000 varieties of rice, mango, turmeric, ginger, sugarcane etc. 4.Animal biodiversity: There are 75,000 animal species including 5,000 insects. India is a home to about nearly 2,00,000 living organisms.

193 RED-DATA BOOK Red book is a catalogue of taxa facing risk of extinction. The purpose of preparation of red list is to provide awareness to the degree of threat to biodiversity. provide global index on decline of biodiversity. identification of species at high risk. help in conservation action. information about international agreements.

194 India's biodiversity is threatened due to habitat destruction, degradation, fragmentation and over exploitation of resources. According to ‘RED’ data book 44 plant species are critically endangered, 54 endangered,143 are vulnerable. India ranks 2nd interms of the number of threatened mammals and 6th among the countries with the most threatened birds. Examples: 1.pitcher plant has become endemic in eastern Himalayas. 2.taxus wallichina has become under red data category due to its over exploitation.

The most remarkable and threatened areas, many of them have been reduced to less than 10% of their original vegetation. These areas are called hot-spots of biodiversity. or The hot spots are the geographic areas which possess high endemic species.

The Richness of endemic species is the primary criterion for recognizing hot spots. Significant percentage of specialized species. Site is under threat. It should contain important Gene pools plants of potentially useful plants.

197 Reason for rich biodiversity in the tropics
The tropics have a More stable climate. Warm temperatures and high humidity in the tropical areas provide favorable conditions. No single species can dominate and thus there is an Opportunity for many species coexist. Among plants, rate of out-crossing appear to be higher in tropics.

198 Area of hot spot These hot spots covering less than 2% of the worlds land are found to contain 50,000 endemic species. According to myersetal (2000), an area is designated as a hot spot when it contains at least 0.5% of the endemic plant species.

199 About 40% of terrestial plants and 25% of vertebrate species are endemic and are found in these hot spots. These are the areas of high diversity, endemism and are also threatened by many human activities.

Myers etal recognized 25 hot spots in the world as shown in table. Two of which are found in India. 1. Eastern Himalayas Indo-Burma region. 2. Western ghats Srilanka region

201 Eastern Himalayas: - 35,000 plant species found in the Himalayas, of which 30% endemic.
The eastern Himalayas are also rich in wild plants of economic value Examples: rice, banana, citrus, ginger, chilly, jute and sugarcane.


203 Western ghats The area comprises Maharastra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, and Kerala. Nearly 1500 endemic dicotyledone plant species are found from western ghats. 62% amphibians and 50% lizards endemic in western ghats.

204 It is reported that only 6
It is reported that only 6.8% of the original forests are existing today while the rest has been deforested or degraded. Some common plants- Ternstroemia Japonica, Hypricum. Some common animals- Blue bird, lizard, hawk.

Any disturbance in an natural ecosystem tent to reduce its biodiversity. The waste generated due to increase in human population and industrialization, spoils the environment and leads to more diversity in biological species. Any change in the system leads to major imbalance and threatens the normal ecological cycle.

Habitat loss: The loss of populations of interbreeding organisms is caused by habitat loss. Habitat loss threatened a wide range of animals and plants.

207 Factors influencing Habitat loss:

Poaching means killing of animals (or) commercial hunting. It leads to loss of animal biodiversity. SUBSISTENCE POACHING: To provide enough food for their survival and killing. COMMERCIAL POACHING: hunting and killing animals sell their products .


Human population Commercial activities Wild life products Wealth of wildlife Importers of wild life Examples: male gorilla, blue morpho butterfly, snowy large egret, blubber;, baleen, elephant feet, elephant, Bengal tigers, bush meat, dynamite fishing, seahorses, star turtles.


212 REMEDY MEASURES Illegal hunting and trade of animals and animal products should be stopped immediately. We should not purchase furcoat, purse or bag or items made of crocodile skin or python skin. Bio-diversity laws should be strengthened.

Man-wildlife conflicts arise, when wildlife starts causing immense damage and danger to the man. Under such condition is very difficult for the forest department to compromise the affected villagers and to gain the villagers support for wildlife conservation.

214 Examples: In Sambalpur ,Orissa-195 humans were killed by elephants. Villagers killed 98 elephants and badly injured 30 elephants. Man-eating tiger killed 16 Nepalese Two men were killed by leopards in Powai, Mumbai 14 persons were killed during 19 attacks by leopards in Sanjay Gandhi National park at Mumbai

215 Factors influencing man-animal conflicts
Shrinking of forest cover compels wildlife to move outside the forest and attack the fields and humans. Human encroachment into the forest area induces a conflict between man and the wildlife. Injured animals have a tendency to attack man. Earlier, forest departments used to cultivate sugarcane paddy, coconut trees, in the sanctuaries.

216 Often the villagers put electric wiring around their crop fields
Often the villagers put electric wiring around their crop fields. The elephants get injured, suffer in pain and start violence. The cash compensation paid by the government for damage caused by the wild animal is not enough. So farmers revengeful and kill the wild animals. Garbage near human settlements or food crops near forest areas attracts wild animals.

217 Remedial measures (or) Conservation of Biodiversity
1. Adequate crop and cattle compensation schemes must be started. 2. Solar powered fencing must be provided along with electric current proof trenches to prevent the animals from entering into the fields. 3. Cropping pattern should be changed nearest the forest borders. 4. Adequate food and water should be made available for the wild animals within forest zones. 5. The development and constructional work in and around forest region must be stopped.

According to IUCN the species are classified into various types. Extinct species: A species is said to be extinct, when it is no longer found in the world. Endangered species: A species is said to be endangered, when its number has been reduced to a critical level. Vulnerable species: A species is said to be vulnerable when its population is facing continuous decline due to habitat destruction or over exploitation. Rare species: A species is said to be rare, when it is localized within restricted area.

A species is said to be endangered, when its number has been reduced to a critical level. Unless it is protected and conserved, it is in immediate danger of extinction. In India 450 plant species have been identified as endangered species. About 100 mammals and 150 birds are endangered species. India's biodiversity is threatened due to habitat destruction, degradation and over exploitation of resources.

220 Categories of threatened species





225 REMEDIAL MESURES International treaties on endangered species {ITES}
“CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES”{CITSE}-signed by 160 countries It list 900 species –cannot be traded It restricts international trade of 2900 other species

226 ENDEMIC SPECIES The species which are found only in a particular region are known as endemic species India is rich in plant and animal endemic species FLORA- e.g.. Sparia himalayana,ovaria lurida Out of 81,000 species –large no is endemic.

227 Western Ghats rich in 60% amphibians, 50%,reptiles endemic species
FAUNA- e.g. monitor lizards, reticulated python, Indian salamander Out of 47,000 species,7,000 –endemic 62% endemic found in Himalayas and western Ghats


229 Endemic species in India
Plants Pteridophyta-200 Angiosperms-4950 Animals Land-878 Freshwater-89 Insecta-16214 Reptilia-214


HABITAT LOSS AND FRAGMENTATION POLLUTION E.G. frog eggs, tadpoles and adults-sensitive to pesticides Over hunting frog legs in Asia and France

Conservation is the management of biosphere so that it will yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs of future generation Factors affecting biodiversity: 1.Human activities like construction, pollution, urbanization 2.poaching, over exploitation, degradation of habitats etc., 3.oil spills, discharge of effluents disturb marine ecosystem 4.Global warming , ozone hole , acid rain etc.,

233 Need for bio diversity conservation:
1.immediate benefit like recreation and tourism 2.drugs, herbs, food, raw materials derived easily 3.preserve genetic diversity of plants and animals 4.ensures sustainable utilization 5.conserve ecological diversity and life supporting systems prevent environmental deterioration

234 IN – SITU CONSERVATION It involves protection of fauna and flora within its natural habitat, where the species normally occurs The natural habitats or ecosystems maintained under in – situ conservation are called protected areas. Biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, gene sanctuary etc., are some of in – situ conservation 4% geographical area of a country used for this It is best method for long term conservation

235 BIOSPHERE RESERVES: Cover large area, more than 5000 Gives long term survival of evolving ecosystem Protects endangered species Protect max. no of species and communities Site for recreation and tourism Used for educational and research purposes Remains as open system and changes in land use restricted



238 NATIONAL PARKS: Area dedicated for the conservation of wild life along with its environment. Smaller than reserves and covers 100 to 500 sq.kms. Exist within reserves


240 For tourism without affecting environment
Protect, propagate and develop the wildlife Grazing is strictly prohibited Private rights and forestry activities are also prohibited

Area reserved for conservation of animals only.there are 492 in our country It protects animals only Allows timber extraction and collection of forest products Private ownership rights and forestry operations which will affect animals adversely are allowed Killing, hunting, shooting, or capturing of wildlife is prohibited except under the control of higher authority


243 GENE SANCTUARY: Area where plants are conserved In northern India one to preserve citrus family and other to preserve pitcher plant was operating

Project tiger Gir lion project Crocodile breeding project Project elephant

245 Merits of in – situ conservation:
Cheap and convenient method Species adjusted to natural disasters Demerits of in – situ conservation: Large area needed Maintenance is not proper hence cause pollution

246 EX – SITU CONSERVATION It involves the protection of fauna and flora outside the natural habitats It involves maintenance and breeding of endangered species in controlled conditions It identify the species under risk of extinction It prefers species of more important for mankind in near future Botanical gardens seed banks microbial culture collections tissue and cell cultures museums zoological gardens are the places where it is carried out




NBPGR: National bureau of plant genetic resources is located in Delhi using cyropreservation technique to preserve agricultural and horticultural crops. Seeds and pollens of certain plants are preserved in liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -1960C for several years NBAGR: National bureau of animal genetic resources is located in karnal Haryana. It preserves the semen of domesticated bovine animals NFPTCR: National facility for plant tissue culture repository develops varieties of plants or trees by tissue culture

251 Merits of Ex- situ conservation:
Special care and attention increased no of endangered species. In captive breeding animals are assured food water shelter and security for longer time. Ususally carried out for endangered species which do not have chance of survival Demerits Expensive, freedom of wildlife lost, cannot survive in natural environments and adopted only for certain species


India is a mega diversity nation with different climatic conditions and topography in different parts of it Occupies 10th position in plant richness It important to study the distribution evolution and environmental relationship of plants and animals in time space. Bio geographers classified our country in to ten bio geographic zones to study about it Each zone has its own characteristic climate, soil and bio diversity

254 S.NO Bio geographic zone Biotic province Total area biomass 1 Trans Himalayan region Upper regions 5.7% 186200 2 Himalayan mountain North west, west, east, central % 6900, 720000, 123000 83000 3 Desert (arid) Kutch Thar Ladakh % 45000 18000 NA 4 Semi arid Central india Gujarat – rajwara 15 – 16% 107600 404400

255 S.NO Bio geographic zone Biotic province Total area biomass 5 Western ghats Malabar coast Mountains 5.8% 59700 99300 6 Deccan peninsula South plateau Central plateau Eastern plateau Chotta nagpur Central highlands 4.3% 378000 341000 198000 217000 287000 7 Gangetic plain Upper Lower 4.3% 206400 153000



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