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Targeting the intolerable

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1 Targeting the intolerable
The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

2 What is Child Labour? It is work that children should not be doing because they are too young to work, or – if they are old enough to work – because it is dangerous or otherwise unsuitable for them Not all work done by children should be classified as child labour to be eliminated. Some types of work, e.g earning pocket money during school holidays, can be beneficial to a child’s development Whether or not particular forms of “work” can be called “child labour” depends on the child’s age, the type and hours of work performed and the conditions under which it is performed, as set out in the ILO Conventions

3 Causes of Child Labour Poverty Culture and tradition
Barriers to education Market demand The effects of income shocks on households Lack of legislation and/or poor enforcement of existing legislation

4 Consequences of Child Labour
Deprives them of schooling or requires them to assume the multiple burden of schooling and work Jeopardises their health and safety – high risk of illness and injury…even death Affects their physical development (malnutrition, long working hours in bad conditions) Exposes them to physical and psychological abuse and violence which all have long term consequences Deprives them of their childhood and of their future

5 Magnitude of the problem
Child labour in the world 215,000,000 Child labourers, 5-17 years old 115,000,000 Engaged in hazardous work, 5-17 years old

6 6 Global trends in child labour (age group 5-17, million) 250 245
245.5 240 235 Million 230 225 222.3 220 215 215.3 210 2000 2004 2008 Year 6

7 7 Global trends in child labour (age group 5-17, percentage) 16.5 16.0
15.5 15.0 % 14.5 14.2 14.0 13.6 13.5 13.0 2000 2004 2008 Year 7

8 8 Global trends in hazardous work (age group 5-17, million) 180 170
170.5 160 150 Million 140 130 128.4 120 115.3 110 100 2000 2004 2008 Year 8

9 9 Global trends in hazardous work (age group 5-17, percentage) 12 11
11.1 10 9 % 8.2 8 7.3 7 6 5 2000 2004 2008 Year 9

10 Global trends in child labour, by sex (age group 5-17, million)
140 132.2 130 127.8 120 119.6 113.3 110 Million 102.7 100 90 87.5 80 70 60 2000 2004 2008 Year Boys Girls 10

11 11 Global trends in child labour by sex (age group 5-17, percentage)
18.0% 17.0% 16.8% 16.0% 15.6% 15.2% 15.0% 14.9% % 14.0% 13.5% 13.0% 12.0% 11.4% 11.0% 10.0% 2000 2004 2008 Year Boys Girls 11

12 12 Children in employment (aged group 5-14, million) 140 127 122 120
96 100 80 Million 58 60 48 49 40 17 20 11 10 Asia and the Pacific Latin America and the Sub-Saharan Africa Caribbean Region 2000 2004 2008 12

13 Children in employment (aged group 5-14, percentage)
35 30 28.8 28.4; Sub-Saharan 26.4 Africa 25 20 19.1 18.8 % 16.1 15 14.8; Asia and the Pacific, 10 10.0 9.0; Latin America and the Caribbean 5 2000 2004 2008 Year 13

14 Magnitude of the problem
Sectoral distribution of working children, 2008

15 Practical Action ILO Conventions and Declaration:
ILO Minimum Age Convention No. 138, 1973 → requires a national policy for the elimination of child labour → requires a specification of a minimum age Ratified by: 156 of the 183 ILO member States ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention No. 182, 1999 → requires governments to take immediate and effective measures to prohibit and eliminate the worst forms of child labour as a priority (art. 1) Ratified by: 173 of the ILO member States ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work

16 The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)
Practical Action The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) Launched in 1992 Main objective: the progressive elimination of child labour To be achieved through strengthening the capacity of countries to deal with the problem and promoting a worldwide movement to combat child labour IPEC is now working in nearly 90 countries and benefitting millions of children IPEC employs internationally recognized labour standards and technical cooperation projects towards achievement of its objective Tripartite cooperation with governments, workers’ and employers’ organizations is the cornerstone of national action against child labour and IPEC interventions © G. Palazzo

17 The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)
Practical Action The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) In countries all over the world, IPEC inspires, guides and supports national and regional initiatives to eliminate child labour The basis of its action is the political will and commitment of individual governments to address the problem IPEC operates a phased and multi-sectoral strategy which motivates a broad alliance of partners to acknowledge and act against child labour Sustainability is built in from the start through an emphasis on in-country ownership. © G. Palazzo

18 Practical Action IPEC’s strategy: “top down” & “bottom up”
Working together with goverments, trade unions and employers to improve legislation, support national plans of action on child labour and strengthen the capacities of key players at the policy, planning and intervention levels Creating awareness at all levels and mobilising alliances and partnerships Mainstreaming child labour issues into national and global development frameworks Demonstrating viable strategies for the prevention of child labour, withdrawal of children from work, the rehabilitation of former child labourers and ensuring their access to education © G. Palazzo

19 Practical Action Projects supporting direct interventions for at-risk children, child labourers, their families and communities, including: Community mobilisation and awareness raising Withdrawal and rehabilitation services Provision of education (formal and non- formal) and vocational training Economic empowerment of targeted families Local child labour monitoring, involving the local community in identifying child labourers and linking them to appropriate services

20 Practical Action Achieving the elimination of the worst forms of child labour by 2016 – the ILO’s three pronged strategy Supporting national responses to child labour, in particular, through effective mainstreaming of child labour concerns in national development and policy framework Deepening and strengthening the worldwide movement; and Promoting further integration of child labour concerns within overall ILO policies

21 Practical Action The 2010 ILO Global Report: Accelerating action against child labour Child labour continues to decline, but progress is too slow and too uneven Significant acceleration and upscaling of action is needed to achieve the 2016 goal Critical policy areas: education, social protection, decent work for adults The Hague 2010 Global Child Labour Conference – Roadmap adopted setting out priority actions for ways to accelerate action and to increase collaboration to achieve the 2016 goal

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