Presentation on theme: "Chapter -1-Society and culture of Panjab during the Turko- Afgan rule"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter -1-Society and culture of Panjab during the Turko- Afgan rule Different rulers
2 Society Division in the Hindu Society Division in the Muslim Society Food of the societyDress and ornamentsAmusementsBlind beliefs
3 Economic life Agriculture Village economy Mineral resources Industry Trade
4 Religious lifeHinduismIslamSufismJainismSuperstitions
5 Cultural conditionsPoetryProseHistorical worksMusicDance
6 ILTUTMISH ( )He was the slave who rose to eminence by sheer dint ot his merit.He was Turk of the Illbari tribe of Turkistan.He became ruler by overcoming several difficulties first by overthrowing Aram Shah,Aibak’s son and then struggling with hi rivals like, Taj-ud-din Yaldoz(1214); Nasir-ud- din Qabacha(1217 and 1227).
7 DifficultiesHe became ruler by overcoming several difficulties first by overthrowing Aram Shah,Aibak’s son and then struggling with hi rivals like, Taj-ud-din Yaldoz(1214); Nasir-ud- din Qabacha(1217 and 1227).
8 AchievementsBengal: He crushed Ali Mardan, the governer of Bengal in 1225 and again crushed another revolt in 1229.Rajputs: He subdued Rajputs of Ranthambhor(1226); Mandsore(1227); Bayana and Thangir; Ajmer; Gawalior(1231); and Kalinjar(1232).
9 He suffered reverse in Gujrat under Chalukyas. Malwa: He plunderd Malwa in and destroyed Mahakal temple of Ujjain.The Doab: He recaptured Badaun, Kanauj and Benaras.Avadh was also brought under Delhi again.
10 Mongols: In 1221 the Mongols appeared for the first time in India. He refused shelter to Shah of Khwarizm of Khiva who was being chased by the Mongols under Chenghiz Khan.
11 To further consolidate his rule he got himself an investiture from the Caliph of Bhagdad. He made Delhi as his capital city.Qutub Minar near Delhi was completed by him inHe started Iqta system by dividing his empire into several Iqtas under the nobles called Iqtadars.
12 Death and SuccessorHe died in 1236 due to disease and inspite of appointing his inefficient son Rukunudin Firoz, he made Razia as his successor.
13 Chapter -2 The Punjab under the Great Mughals Rulers Political legacy Social legacyReligious legacy
14 Social legacy Hindus Position of the women Food and drinks Amusements festivals
15 Religious legacy Sufism Bhakti movement Religious toleration NaqshbandisHinduismIslamJainismSuperstitions
16 Economic legacy Agriculture Village economy Mineral resources Industry Trade
17 Cultural lifePoetryProseHistorical worksMusicDance
18 Chpter-3-Bhakti movement Origin of the BhaktiCauses of the Bhakti movementSalient features of the Bhakti movementImpact of the Bhakti movement
19 BHAKTI MOVEMENT (I) INTRODUCTION The all India religious movement for the reformation of Hindu religion and to save it from decline during the medieval India is called Bhakti Movement. It is also know as “Religious reform movement”. Since the exponents of the movements, Stressed the “Bhakti Mary” for the salvation, out of the three fold theory of “Karam marg”, “Bhakti marg” and “Gian marg” the Movement was given the name of Bhakti Movement:
20 (II) ORIGION AND CAUSE OF BHAKTI MOVEMENT (A) Evils in Himduism(1) Large amount of wealth was spent on Havans, Yajnas and other religions festivals.(2) Non belief in the oneness of God.(3) Idol worship(4) Strictness in caste system and Untouchability(5) Worship of Books(6) Moral decline of Bhrahmans(7) Status of divine language to Sanskrit(8) Belief in astrology and magic charms(9) Belief in unmeaning ceremonies(B) Danger from Islam(C) Impact of Sufism(D) Growth of vaishnavism and shaivism(E) Birth of great reformers
21 (III) MAIN PRINCIPLES OR FEATURES OF BHAKTI MOVEMENT Positive PrinciplesOneness of GodWorship of GodNecessity of GuruImportance of the GuruSelf SurrenderEmphasis on good deedsUniversal BrotherhoodNegative PrinciplesNo belief in caste systemNo belief in idol worshipNo belief in religious ceremoniesNo belief in holiness of any Particular Language
23 (IV) PROMINENT BHAKTI SAINTS SHANKARA CHARYA ( A.D.)RAMANUJACHARYA ( A.D.)NAM DEV, ( ) A.D.CHAITANYA MAHA PRABHU ( A.D.)KABIR DASS ( A.D)GURU NANAK DEV ( A.D.)VALLABHACHARYA ( A.D.)MIRA BAI ( A.D.)JAI DEVRAMA NANDVITTHALA NATHRAVI DASSDADU DAYALSUR DASTULSI DASEKNATHRAM DASSTUKA RAM
24 (V) EFFECT OF BHAKI MOVEMENT RELIGIOUS EFFECTSProtection of HinduismIncrease in places of pilgrimageProgress of Islam CheckedDecline of BuddhismBirth of SikhismSOCIAL AND CULTURAL EFFECTSHindu-muslim unity and co-operationBroad outlook of peopleUplift of lower classesFeeling of Social ServiceSocial ReformsDevelopment of regional literatureDevelopment of Hindu-muslim Art.POLITICAL EFFECTSliberal Religious Policy of AkbarEmergence of the sikh powerRise of the Maratha Power
25 Salient features of the Bhakti movement Belief in one god Brotherhood Emotional worship Good deeds Guru’s rule No caste system
26 Salient features of the Bhakti movement No idol worship No sanctity to a particular language No rituals
27 Impact of bhakti movement Saved HinduismShackled caste systemSetback to BuddhismIslamHindu Muslim unityBhakti literature
28 SufismDifferent orders of Sufism Features Teachings Impact
29 Features of sufism Worship in one god No worldly pleasures No violence No caste systemUniversal brotherhoodMoralitymurshid
30 Chpter -4-Guru Nanak the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi. Also called Rai Bhoe-ki Talwandi, the village now known as Nankana Sahib, is near Lahore in PAKISTAN.He was born, according to all ancient Sikh records, in the early morning of the third day of the light half of the month of Baisakh (April - May) in the year 1469; this is believed to be Saturday 15 April 1469.The name "Nanak" was used by all subsequent Gurus who wrote any sacred text in the Sikh holy scripture called the Guru Granth Sahib. So the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad is also called the "Second Nanak" or "Nanak II". It is believed by the Sikhs that all subsequent Gurus carried the same message as that of Guru Nanak and so they have used the name "Nanak" in their holy text instead of their own name and hence are all referred to as the "Light of Nanak.“
31 HIS PATHIt was a dark and moonless night; the clouds were heavy with rain as it was the monsoon season. Suddenly lightning flashed and thunder sounded as a few raindrops started to fall. The village was asleep. Only Nanak was awake and the echo of his song filled the air.Nanak’s mother was worried because it was pitch dark and day break was far away. The lamp in his room was burning. She could hear his melodious voice as he sang, restraining herself no longer she knocked at his door. “Go to sleep, my son, the sun is a long way ahead.” Nanak became silent. From the darkness sounded the call of the sparrow-hawk. “Piyu, piyu, piyu!” it called.“Listen, mother!” Nanak called out. “The sparrow-hawk is calling to his beloved; how can I be silent, because I am competing with it? I will call my beloved before he calls his– even for longer because his beloved is nearby, perhaps in the next tree! My beloved is so far away. I will have to sing for lives upon lives before my voice reaches Him.” Nanak resumed his song.
32 Continue….Guru Nanak’s path was, is and will ever remain decorated with endless rows of true flowers; he realised God by singing virtues of God and following a life of true deeds. Guru Nanak did not practise normal Hindu austerities, meditation or yoga; he only sang in the beautiful poetic forms of the time. Singing, often extemporaneously, with all his heart and soul, so much so that his singing became his meditation, his purification and his yugam (yoking ones self to the almighty, to Satguru. This was Nanak’s path; decorated with true flowers of song, songs of glory and praise of the Almighty Lord.
34 FAMILY OF GURU NANAK DEV JI FATHER-His father was Kalayan Das Mehta, also known as Mehta Kalu.MOTHER-His mother was Mata Tripta ji.SISTER-Guru ji had an older sister called Bebey Nanki, who was the first to recognise Nanak as an enlightened Soul.WIFE-Nanak married Sulkhni of Batala.SONS-They had two sons, Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das.They were Hindus belonging to the Vedic Kshatri (Khatri) caste.
35 GURU NANAK’S LIFE AT SULTANPUR Guru ji's brother-in-law, the husband of his sister Nanki, obtained a job for him in Sultanpur as the manager of the government's grainary. One morning, when he was twenty-eight, he went as usual down to the river to bathe and meditate. It was said that he was gone for three days. When he reappeared, filled with the spirit of God, it was apparent to all that he was a changed man. He would say nothing, he quit his job and distributed all that he had to the poor. Accompanied by his childhood friend, a Muslim named Mardana who had always played the Rebab while Nanak sang, they left town. When, after a few days, he spoke saying "There is no Hindu, no Musalman." It was then that Guru Nanak began his missionary work and travels.As a householder, Guru ji continued to carry out the mission of his life – to lead people on the true path to God, to dispel superstition, to bring people out of ritualistic practises, to lead them directly to follow Gurbani without the need for priests and clergy, and to restrain and guard against the five thieves within – Pride, Anger, Greed, Attachment and Lust.
36 THREE PILLARS OF SIKHISM Guru Nanak founded and formalised the three pillars of Sikhism:1. Naam Japna Guru ji led the sikhs directly to practice Simran and Naam Japna– meditation on God through reciting, chanting, singing and constant remembrance followed by deep study & comprehension of God’s Name and virtues. In real life to practice and tread on the path of Dharam (righteousness) - The inner thought of the Sikh thus stays constantly immersed in praises and appreciation of the Creator and the ONE ETERNAL GOD Waheguru.2. Kirat Karni He expected the Sikhs to live as honourable householders and practise Kirat Karni – To honestly earn by ones physical and mental effort while accepting both pains and pleasures as GOD's gifts and blessings. One is to stay truthful at all times and, fear none but the Eternal Super Soul. Live a life founded on decency immersed in Dharam - life controlled by high spiritual, moral and social values.
37 3. Vand Chakna. The Sikhs were asked to share their wealth within the community by practising Vand Chakna – “Share and Consume together”. The community or Sadh Sangat is an important part of Sikhism. One must be part of a community that is living the flawless objective values set out by the Sikh Gurus and every Sikh has to contribute in whatever way possible to the common community pool. This spirit of Sharing and Giving is an important message from Guru Nanak.
39 CONTRIBUTIONS TO HUMANITY During his time on Earth Guru Nanak was revered by both Hindus and Muslims and even today many, outside of the Sikh faith, revere him. It is related that as he lay dying, his followers some formerly Hindu and others formerly Muslims argued whether his body should be cremated as Hindu tradition dictated or buried as in Islamic tradition. It is said that when they removed the sheet which had covered the Guru they found only beautiful flowers. The Hindus burned theirs, the Muslims buried theirs.His main contributions were:Equality of womenIn about 1499 when the world offered low to no status or respect to women, Guru Nanak sought to improve the respect of women by spreading this message: "From woman, man is born; within woman, man is conceived; to woman he is engaged and married. Woman becomes his friend; through woman, the future generations come. When his woman dies, he seeks another woman; to woman he is bound. So why call her bad? From her, kings are born.
40 From woman, woman is born; without woman, there would be no one at all From woman, woman is born; without woman, there would be no one at all. O Nanak, only the True Lord is without a woman. In so doing, he promoted women's rights and equality — a first for the 15th century!Equality of humansWhen in the middle east, the west and the rest of asia slavery, varna/class and race discrimination was rife and respect between the different classes and caste was at a peak, Guru Nanak preached against discrimination and prejudices due to race, caste, status, etc. He said: "See the brotherhood of all mankind as the highest order of Yogis; conquer your own mind, and conquer the world." ; also "There is one awareness among all created beings." and finally "One who recognizes the One Lord among all beings does not talk of ego. He urges all the peoples of the world to "conquer" their minds to these evil practises. All human beings had the light of the Lord and were the same -- only by subduing one's pride and ego could one see this light in all.Universal message for all people
41 It had been a custom at the time for religious leaders to address only their own congregation and for segregation of the different religions -- but Guru Nanak broke with tradition and spoke to all of humanity. To the Muslim he said: "And when, O Nanak, he is merciful to all beings, only then shall he be called a Muslim. to the Hindu, he said "O Nanak, without the True Name, of what use is the frontal mark of the Hindus, or their sacred thread? and to all he preached: "To take what rightfully belongs to another is like a Muslim eating pork, or a Hindu eating beef." .
43 The four journeysHistory states that he made four great journeys, travelling to all parts of India, and into Arabia and Persia; visiting Mecca and Baghdad. He spoke before Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Parsees, and Muslims. He spoke in the temples and mosques, and at various pilgrimage sites. Wherever he went, Guru Nanak spoke out against empty religious rituals, pilgrimages, the caste system, the sacrifice of widows, of depending on books to learn the true religion, and of all the other tenets that were to define his teachings. Never did he ask his listeners to follow him. He asked the Muslims to be true Muslims and the Hindus to be true Hindus.After the last of his great journeys, Guru Nanak tried a new experiment - he asked a wealthy follower to donate a large tract of land . Here he built a town calling it Kartapur (in Punjab) on the banks of the Ravi where he taught for another fifteen years. Followers from all over came to settle in Kartapur to listen, and sing, and be with him. During this time, although his followers still remained Hindu, Muslim, or of the religion to which they were born, they became known as the Guru's disciples, or sikhs. It
44 was here his followers began to refer to him as teacher, or guru was here his followers began to refer to him as teacher, or guru. The Guru told his followers that they were to be householders and could not live apart from the world -- there were to be no priests or hermits. Here is where the Guru instituted the common meal, requiring the rich and poor, Hindu and Muslim, high caste and low caste, to sit together while eating. All worked together, all owned the town. Here is where Lehna, later to be Guru Angad, came to be with Guru Nanak.To this day in Gurdwaras from the Punjab around the world to California's Yuba City people of all religions and creeds can enjoy a wonderful evening of beautiful song, music and of course a hot friendly meal.
45 The Guru leaves for his heavenly abode Kartarpur , was established by Guru Nanak in On Monday September 22, 1539 AD Guru Nanak breathed his last at Kartarpur. Since the Guru's followers had been raised as Hindus or Muslims (each of which had different methods of dealing with one's earthly remains), an argument arose over whether the Guru's body should be cremated or buried. Traditionally, Hindus cremate while Muslims bury the bodies of loved ones after death.Ultimately it was decided that flowers would be placed by each group on his body. Whosoever's flowers were found withered the next morning would loose the claim. It is related that the next morning when the cloth sheet was removed the Guru's body was missing and both sets of flowers were found as fresh as when they were placed.The two communities then decided to divide the cloth sheet that covered the Guru's body and together with the flowers that they had place, one burying it and the other consigning it to fire. Therefore, both a samadh (Hindu tradition monument of remembrance) lies in the Gurdwara at
46 Kartarpur and a grave (according to Muslim traditions) lies on the premises as a reminder of this joint claim to Guru Nank by both the communities.The gurdwara is located next to a small village named Kothay Pind (village) on the West bank of the Ravi River in Punjab, Pakistan. The original abode established by Guru Nanak was washed away by floods of the river Ravi.The Gurudwara at Kartarpur can be seen from another Gurdwara located across the border at the historical town of Dehra Baba Nanak in India (It is not Dera, as so many people wrongly call it. Dehra is derived from the word Deh or body). Both sites are one of the holiest places in Sikhism located in the Majha region.
48 NEW INJUNCTIONS AND SYMBOLS OF KHALSA Khalsa features
49 INTRODUCTIONKhalsa –created by Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the 10th Guru of the Sikhs.In the year1699 at Anandpur Sahib on Baisakhi day.The sikhs were now called Singhs.SYMBOLS OF KHALSAKesh Different looks.Kachha- Smarter than dhoti.Kara Spiritual chain (Guru Gobind Singh)Kirpan- Symbol of bravery.Kanngha- Symbol of cleanliness.
50 NEW INJUNCTIONS Not to indulge in caste system. No social and matrimonial relation with smokers.No relation with person who shaved.No relation with persons who killed their daughters.Not to keep relations with the descendants of Prithia or with Dhirmal or with those Masands who were fallen away from the principles of Guru Nanak.
51 The follower were not to smoke and not to cut their hairs. They were to keep good moral character.They were to have faith in one immortal God.They were to rise early, bath and recite the Banis (sacred hymns) of Gurus.They were to sacrifice everything for the Gurus- Kritnash ( occupation), Kulnash( family ties), Dharmnash (religious beliefs), Karannash (old practices), Ritnash (customs).
52 Each Khalsa was to carry arms- God and Sword were synonymous. Khalsa was to give 1/10 of there income to charity.They were to greet each other with “ Wahe Guruji ka Khalsa Wahe Guruji ki Fateh”.They were to add “Singhs” to their names.
53 CONCLUSIONGuru Gobind Singh ji raised a powerful organisation with a view to kill the royal hawks with sparrows.Khalsa combined- serenity and strength, purity and power, power of wisdom and power of action.
56 INTRODUCTIONGuru ji’s career can be divided into two distinct periods:-1.) The pre-khalsa period- extended from (making preparation for the creation of khalsa).2.) The post-khalsa period- extended from (the result of the creation of khalsa)
57 Various Causes for the battles fought during post Khalsa period Increasing power and popularity of Guruji.Feeling of fear and alarm among the Mughals.Challenge to Mughals by creating Khalsa.
58 POST KHALSA ACTIVITIES First battle of Anandpur-1701Battle of Nirmoh-1702Battle of Basoli-1702Second battle of Anandpur-1704Battle of Shahi Tibbi-1704Battle of Sarsa-1704Battle of Chamkaur-1705
59 Guruji in the jungles of Machhiwara. Guruji in Dina.Zafarnama (letter of victory to Aurangzeb).Criticized the policy of Mughal ruler.Battle of Khidrana- named it Muktsar.Guruji’s stay at Talwandi Sabo (Damdama Sahib) or Guru ki Kashi.Center of education and literature.Guruji accompanied Bhadhur Shah to Deccan.Reached Nander in August, 1707.
61 INTRODUCTION Birth- 27th oct 1670 Place-village Rajori, Poonch Dist. In west Kashmir.Father- Ramdev an ordinary farmer.Initial name- Lachman Das, but known in history as Banda Bhadur.Banda Bhadur
62 End came on 7th oct, 1708.Appointed Banda Bhadur as his political successor.Thus sown the seeds of revolution in the hearts of his disciples.Left behind a rich legacy of great achievements.Banda Bhadur
63 Military Exploits of Banda Bhadur Reasons:-To fight against Mughal tyranny of Mughals.To punish Wazir Khan- the Governor of Sirhind because of following reasons:-He bricked up Guruji’s two sons alive.He harassed Guruji in the jungles of Machhiwara.The Pathan who stabbed Gobind Singh at Nander was in the pay of Wazir Khan.
64 Invasion over Sonepat and Kaithal in 1708. Conquest of Samana and Gurram 1709.Attack on Samana in 1709.Occupation of Sadhaura- overran Shahbad, Ambala and Kapoori.Battle of Ropar.Final battle of Chappar Chirri and sack of Sirhind(1710).A major attack on Wazir Khan and killed him.
65 Conquest of territories beyond Jamuna. Independence of Sikhs in Jullundhar doab.Sikhs success in Majha region.Occupation of hilly areasOther achievementsMade Mukhlispur his capital.The fort of Mukhlispur was renamed as Lohgarh- became the center of all activities.Issued coines in the name of Guru Gobind Singh ji(1710)
66 Made state seal which bore the words ‘Deg and Teg are the boons Guru Nanak’. Divided territories under many parts and appointed many Sikhs as administrators.Abolished Zamindari.Give indirect call to peasants to safeguard their interests. Executed in 1716.Banda lived like a hero and died like a hero.