7 Further Military Applications Intrusion detection (mine fields)Detection of firing gun locationChemical/Biological attack detectionTargeting and target tracking systemsEnhanced navigation systemsBattle damage assessment system
8 Environmental Applications Tracking the movements of birds, small animals,and insectsMonitoring environmental conditions that affectcrops and livestock (precision agriculture)IrrigationFlood DetectionEarth monitoring and planetary exploration
9 Environmental Applications Biological, Earth, and environmental monitoringin marine, soil, and atmospheric contextsMeteorological or geophysical researchPollution StudyForest Fire Detection9
10 Habitat Monitoring http://www. greatduckisland Habitat Monitoring Great Duck Island in Maine.
11 Cane Toad Monitoring http://www. cse. unsw. edu University of New South Wales, Sydney, AustraliaMonitoring cane toads in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, AustraliaCane toads (Bufo marinus) - introduced to control sugar pests in Australia about 70years ago
12 ZebraNetAnimal Tracking – Use collars with GPS to monitor the walking patterns of zebras in KenyaCollect detailed, accurate positionlogs of each zebraHave a high data recovery rateAutonomous Operation
13 Forest Fire Detection: Firebug http://firebug.sourceforge.net/ Temperature and humidity sensorBarometric pressure sensorGPS unitAccelerometerLight Intensity Sensor1313
15 Health Applications Patient Monitoring Helping Disabled Diagnostics Telemonitoring of human physiological dataTracking and monitoring doctors andpatients inside a hospital, and
16 CodeBlue: WSNs for Medical Care (m-HEALTH) http://www. eecs. harvard NSF, NIH, U.S. Army, Sun Microsystems and Microsoft CorporationMotivation - Vital sign data poorly integrated with pre-hospital and hospital-based patient care records
17 CodeBlue: WSNs for Medical Care Small wearable sensorsWireless pulse oximeterBased on the Mica2, MicaZ, and Telos sensor node platformsCustom sensor board with pulse oximeter or EKG circuitryPluto motescaled-down version of the Telosrechargeable Li-ion batterysmall USB connector3-axis accelerometer1717
18 CodeBlue: WSNs for Medical Care Intel SHIMMER moteCC2420 IEEE radioRechargeable Li-polymer batteryMicroSD slot supporting up to2 GBytes(more than 80 days of data)Optional Bluetooth radio18
19 Wireless Automatic Meter Reading (WAMR) Systems for Power Utilities: M2M Communication
20 Smart Roads: M2M * Traffic monitoring, accident detection, recovery assistance* Finding out empty parking lots in a city, without asking a server (car-to-car communication)* Vehicle tracking and detection20
21 Buildings (or Bridges) - High-rise buildings self-detect structural faultsReduce energy wastage by proper humidity, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) controlNeeds measurements about room occupancy, temperature, air flow, …Monitor mechanical stress after earthquakes
22 Further Applications Factory Floor Automation Constructing Smart Homes Monitoring Product QualityFactory Floor AutomationConstructing Smart HomesConstructing Smart Office SpacesSmart Spaces
23 MORE APPLICATIONS Facility Management Intrusion detection into industrial sitesControl of leakages in chemical plants, …
24 Wireless Underground Sensor Networks I. F Wireless Underground Sensor Networks I.F. Akyildiz and Erich Stuntebeck, “Wireless Underground Sensor Networks: Research Challenges”, Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier) Journal, NovSinkSoil ConditionSensorWaterSalinityTemperature
26 APPLICATIONS Environmental Security: Earthquake and landslide prediction and monitoringGroundwater monitoringToxic substance monitoring near wells and aquifersNational Security:Concealed and autonomous border patrolIntruder detectionPersonal Safety:Mine disaster prevention & rescueRoad & subway accident prevention & rescue
27 APPLICATIONSSoil condition monitoring for intelligent agriculture and landscapingOil Reservoir monitoring for upstream oil & gas industryIntelligent traffic system in road & subway tunnels
28 APPLICATIONS * pipes * electrical wiring, * liquid storage tanks Underground infrastructure monitoring such as* pipes* electrical wiring,* liquid storage tanks* underground fuel tanks* septic tanksMonitoring the structural health of any undergroundcomponents of a building, bridge, or dam
30 Major Undetected Pipe Leak in 2006 [New York Times, March 15, 2006 ] APPLICATION Example 1Major Undetected Pipe Leak in 2006 [New York Times, March 15, 2006 ]The largest oil spill occurred on the tundra of Alaska's North Slope270 K gallons of thick crude oil spilled over two acresOil escaped through a pinprick-size hole in a corroded 34-inch pipeMost of the oil seeped beneath the snow without attracting the attention of workers monitoring alarm systemsThe spill went undetected for as long as five days
31 Underground Pipeline Monitoring Z. Sun, et.al., "MISE-PIPE: Magnetic Induction-based Wireless Sensor Networks for Underground Pipeline Monitoring," Ad Hoc Networks Journal (Elsevier), May 2011.SinkFlow DirectionSensor (powered by fluid flow)
32 Intelligent Irrigation APPLICATION Example 2Intelligent IrrigationIrrigation: 69% of worldwide water consumption.Current solution:Apply uniform irrigation in the whole field using predetermined plan.Intelligent irrigation:Apply right amount of water at the right location and right time.Depends on underground sensor networksFresh Water Usage in the World(2007)Irrigation 69%
33 APPLICATION Example 3 Border Patrol Z. Sun et.al., "BorderSense: Border Patrol through Advanced Wireless Sensor Networks,"Ad Hoc Networks Journal (Elsevier), May 2011.Conventional Border Patrol Systems:Extensive human resources neededIntruder can avoid the check pointsNew border patrol system:Hybrid sensor system consists of:Underground sensorsUnmanned aerial vehicle
34 Oil Reservoir Monitoring APPLICATION Example 4Oil Reservoir MonitoringTerrestrial/seabed oil recoveryLarge but thin fracture filled with water/oilVery small sensor (<1 cm)RF-challenged environmentWater/oil + soil + tunnel
35 Mine Disaster Prevention & Rescue APPLICATION Example 5Mine Disaster Prevention & RescueNo existing technique supports disaster-immune communication and localization in UG mines.Based on our research on mine communications, the hybrid EM-MI system can realize the disaster immunity.
36 Landslide detection system using WSN at Munnar, Idukki, Kerala, India APPLICATION EXAMPLE 6: AMRITA WSN System for Landslide DetectionLandslide detection system using WSN at Munnar, Idukki, Kerala, IndiaWSN in combination with Wi-Fi and satellite technologyMultiple sets of geophysical sensors inside a column5 -6 m buried in the earth
37 AMRITA WSN System for Landslide Detection http://www. amrita Data retrieved using spatially distributed WSNWireless sensor nodes forward data on to a GatewayGateway sends data via a directional Wi-Fi link to a Field Data Management Center (FMC)Finally collected at a Data Management Center (DMC) through a satellite link 252 km away from the deployment field
38 UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, T UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS I.F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, T. Melodia, “Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Research Challenges”, Ad Hoc Networks (Elsevier) Journal, March 2005.Applications:Ocean Sampling NetworksPollution Monitoring and other environmental monitoring(chemical, biological)Disaster PreventionAssisted NavigationDistributed Tactical SurveillanceMine Reconnaissance
39 UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS 3D DYNAMIC Architecture using AUVs 39
41 Ocean Sampling Sensors Point measurements in upper water column 10 and 25 mi off Moss LandingDrift buoy: Path followed by surface currentsSurface station
42 Autonomuos Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) CARIBOU by Bluefin Robotics CorporationEquipped with state-of-the-art sensors (side-scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler), and can collect high-quality data for:Archaeological remote sensingMulti-static acoustic modelingFisheries resource studies andDevelopment of concurrent mapping and localization techniques.
43 Autonomuos Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) Solar recharged AUVPhantom HD2 ROV
44 Manufacturers of Sensor Devices Crossbow (www.xbow.com)Mica2 mote, Micaz, Dot mote and Stargate PlatformIntel Research (www.intel.com)Stargate, iMoteCogent Computer (www.cogcomp.com)Mote iv – Telos Mote (www.telos.com)Ember (www.ember.com)
45 Manufacturers of Sensor Devices Texas InstrumentsMotorolaSiemensEatonSamsungMitsubishiZigBee Alliance develops a standard for wireless low-power, low-rate devices.
47 WSN StandardsFollowing thousands of papers, three main standards emerged:IEEE : Defines MAC and PHY layersZigBee: Internet-independent standard backed by hundreds of players (TI, Kroger(!), Philips, GE, Intel, Siemens, Sony, Whirlpool, etc…) – sits on top of6LowPAN: Extend Internet to WSNs (IPv6 WSN) – sits on top ofOther standardsWirelessHART, WINA: Industrial networkingISA SP100.11a: Process and factory automation
48 ZigBee and 802.15.4 ZigBee sits on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard defines the MAC and PHY layers.
49 IEEE 802.15.4: Types of Devices Full Function Device (FFD): Can send beaconsCan communicate with other FFDsCan route framesCan act as PAN coordinatorTypically features power supplyReduced Function Device (RFD):Cannot route framesCannot communicate with other RFDsCan communicate with FFDRuns typically on batteriesPAN CoordinatorIs responsible of a Personal Area Network (PAN)Manages PAN association/de-association
52 IEEE 802.15.4: MAC Layer Two operation modes: Beacon Enabled PAN coordinator periodically transmits beaconsUsually adopted in star topologiesSlotted CSMA/CA + scheduled transmissions (TDMA)Non-Beacon EnabledUncoordinated access through unslotted CSMA/CA
53 ZigBee: Routing Three Types of Devices: ZigBee Routing Integrates: ZB Coordinator (FFD)ZB Router (FFD)ZB End-Device (RFD o FFD)ZigBee Routing Integrates:Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)Cluster Tree AlgorithmThousands of papers on routing in WSNs… and we are back to AODV!!!
54 6LowPAN IPv6 WSNs – Integrate WSNs into the Internet An Adaptation Layer to fit IPv6 over low-power wireless area networksMostly focused on compressing IPv6 header into smaller packets1280 byte IPv6 MTU -> 127 byte framesSits on top of IEEE MAC and PHY
55 Myths and Reality Hundreds of nodes in a network Large-scale multi-hop networksData-centric routing, stateless routing, cluster-based routing, geographical routing, etc…<$1 e.a.Tens of nodes in a networkMostly rely on star topologies and coordinatorsAODV~$100 e.a.
56 A LOOK INTO THE FUTURE: Limitations of current MICRO-sensor networks Limited capabilitiesLimited computing and data storage capabilitiesLimited communication bandwidthLimited power and energy systems (huge impact on network lifetime, reliability).Size (current sensor dimensions also limit their applications).
57 HOW ABOUT NANO-SENSORS ? Nanotechnology is enabling the development of novel nano-devices which are:Much smallerLess power hungry + self-poweredAble to do some processing + data storageNew nanosensing capabilities
58 APPLICATION: INTERNET OF NANOTHINGS SMART office Intra/Over body Nano-ThingsInternetConsumer Electronic Devices“Other Nano-Things”
59 APPLICATION: CHEMICAL ATTACK PREVENTION Nano-SensorsConsumer Electronic Devices
60 Application: Advanced Health SYSTEMS InternetHealthcare ProviderIntra/Over Body Nano-Things
61 Application: Advanced Health SYSTEMS Nanosensors in the body can be connected to the Internet by means of nano-to-micro interfaces, thus allowing remote:Glucose, sodium and other ions monitoring and control.Cancer monitoring and control.Smart intra-body drug delivery.Brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's, epilepsy and depression detection and control.Infectious agents detection (e.g., malaria).