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Unit 4 Section 2 Notes Types of Waves.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Section 2 Notes Types of Waves."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 Section 2 Notes Types of Waves

2 What is a Wave? Examples of Waves: Wave:
A disturbance that carries energy through matter or space. Examples of Waves: Sound you hear from your headphones Earthquakes Ripples in a pond

3 Mediums A wave is not made of matter, but involves the movement of matter. Most waves travel through a medium. Medium: the matter through which a wave travels. Examples: Sound you hear from your headphones: Air Earthquakes: Earth Ripples in a pond: Water

4 Types of Waves Mechanical Waves: Most waves are mechanical waves
They require a medium (like water or air) to travel through.

5 Types of Waves Electromagnetic Waves:
Do NOT require a medium to travel through Made of changing electric and magnetic fields, which radiate at the speed of light (3x108m/s) This shows the wave traveling along one line, but it actually fills space.

6 Electromagnetic Waves
Anything that is part of the electromagnetic spectrum is an electromagnetic wave. That includes: Radio waves Microwaves Infrared Visible light Ultraviolet light X-Rays Gamma Rays

7 Types of Waves Mechanical Waves Electromagnetic Waves

8 Waves do Work We know that waves carry energy because they can do work: Examples: Water waves can do work on a leaf or a boat Sound waves can do work on your eardrum

9 Waves do Work The larger the wave, the more energy it carries.
Example: A cruise ship moving through the ocean may create waves big enough to move a fishing boat up and down a few meters.

10 Characteristics of Waves
If you go to a rock concert and stand next to the speakers, the sound waves may damage your ears. But if you stand 100 m away, the sound of the rock band is harmless. Why? As waves travel outward, the spherical wave fronts get bigger, so the energy spreads out over a larger area.

11 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
Waves are classified according to the direction in which particles in the medium move as a wave passes by; they can either move up and down or back and forth. They are classified as either transverse or longitudinal.

12 Transverse Waves Transverse wave: wave in which wave motion is perpendicular (up and down) to particle motion. Examples: A crowd doing “the wave”; individual people move up and down, but the motion travels around the stadium Electromagnetic waves; electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other

13 Motion of particles in a transverse wave
Wave travels to the right: Particle motion Wave motion

14 Longitudinal Waves (Compression Wave)
Longitudinal waves: Waves in which wave motion is parallel to the particle motion. Example: Sound waves; as they move through the air, molecules in the air move backward and forward, parallel to the direction the sound waves travel.

15 Parts of Waves Transverse Waves Longitudinal Waves
Crests: high points of transverse waves Troughs: low points of transverse waves Compressions: crowded areas of longitudinal waves Rarefactions: stretched out areas of longitudinal waves

16 Surface Waves Some waves are not simply transverse or longitudinal:
Surface Waves: Waves that move both perpendicular and parallel to the direction of wave motion. Example: Waves on the ocean or swimming pool This type of wave also occurs at the boundary between 2 different mediums, like water and air.

17 Surface Waves

18 Diagram of Types of Waves
Transverse Longitudinal Surface

19 Simple Harmonic Motion
A vibration that can keep on going without any interference.

20 Dampened Harmonic Motion:
A vibration that fades out as energy is transferred from one object to another

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