4 Questions: What happened to the Byzantine Empire over time? What or who was the cause of this change?What is imperialism? In this situation, who acted imperialistically?
5 The First Crusade Background: Causes: Byzantine Emperor asked Pope for helpByzantine empire was besieged by Muslim armiesByzantine empire lost half its land to Muslim armies by 1071Holy Land closed to Christian pilgrims by Islamic empireFree eastern Christians from Muslim empireKeep Europe ChristianPilgrim: person who goes on a religious journey
6 CRUSADES Definition: The Two Sides: Who were the European fighters? Crusades: Holy WarThe Two Sides:Christians from EuropeMuslim Turks from Middle EastWho were the European fighters?Lords and knightsWhy did Europeans want to fight?Duty/FaithWealthDefeat Muslims
7 The First CrusadePope Urban II called for 1st Crusade at Council of Clermont in 1095Impassioned speech demonstrating atrocities committed against Christians in Palestine.Between Urban II preached this message and had all religious do the same.Volunteers would vow to visit Church of Holy Sepulchre and were given a cross to sew onto clothes.Crusaders were divided into four armies: northern and southern France, Germany and S ItalyPope Urban II preaches at Council of Clermont
8 The First Crusade Two Groups went to fight the 1st Crusade: People’s Crusade: 1096Made up of untrained and illiterate mostly peasants with some knights.Lacked military discipline and knowledge and were massacred in Asia Minor by the Turks.Main Crusader Armies:Left Europe in Aug 1096.Gathered in Constantinople in Nov.30-35,000 crusadersLeaders: Count Raymond of Toulouse, S France; Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin, commanded French and Germans from Rhineland; Robert, William the Conqueror's eldest son, Normandy; Bohemond, a son of Robert Guiscard, and his nephew Tancred, Italy and Sicily
9 The First Crusade Siege of Jerusalem 1099 7 June Crusaders reached Jerusalem, many wept.Only about crusaders remained.Before attacking the city, they marched barefoot in religious procession around the walls, with Peter the Hermit at their head. Then came the grand assault.
10 Assault of Jerusalem Initial assault on city failed Final assault began on 13 July.By 15 July Crusaders entered Jerusalem. Godfrey of Bouillon and Tancred were among the first to mount the ramparts.Crusaders massacred about 40,000? Muslims and Jews,Kingdom of Jerusalem was established on 22 JulyBaldwin of Edessa, first to take title King of JerusalemOther Crusader states formed.
12 Aftermath Victory in 1st Crusade was short lived. Within 50 years, Muslim armies re-conquered JerusalemThe 1st Crusade would be the only victory for the European Christian armies.Succeeding crusades failed to win any territory
13 The Crusades Conclusion At Least 8 CrusadesEffects of Crusades:Increased dislike among Jews, Christians and MuslimsPope and lords lost powerKings gained PowerTrade with Asia and Middle East rebornInterest in exploration