HIGH POINTS/LOW POINTS High Points: sizable & growing middle class with some in the upper class accumulating great wealth; world-class scientific & technological accomplishments; high-tech industries are an integral part of the global economy. Low Points: many social groups are cut off from the process of development; very high illiteracy rates; large & growing populations threatens resource base…
4 Economic Development: Burdened by Poverty South Asian Poverty India has a growing middle class, and an upper class –About 100 million Indians afford modern consumer goods More than 300 million Indian citizens are below their country’s poverty line, and Bangladesh is poorer –Child labor dilemma
Child Labor in South Asia Child Labor in India Child labor in Pakistan Stats on Child Labor in the region
Geographies of Economic Development The Himalayan Countries Rugged terrain and isolation in Nepal and Bhutan are a disadvantage Bhutan has isolationist stance & has gone to a different measure of success (“GNH”) Nepal’s tourism has brought in $$ BUT also resulted in environmental degradation
Geographies of Economic Development –Bangladesh Poorest country in the region Heavy reliance on production of commercial crops (Jute and Rice) Environmental degradation has contributed to poverty Internationally competitive in textile and clothing manufacturing –Pakistan Inherited a reasonably well- developed urban infrastructure Agriculture, cotton, textile industry are important Less dynamic economy and less potential for growth Burdened by high levels of defense spending & threat of Islamic extremism.
Geographies of Economic Development Sri Lanka and the Maldives Sri Lanka: second- most highly developed economy in region –Exports of agricultural products (rubber and tea) and textiles –Civil war has undercut economic progress Maldives is most prosperous country in region, based on per capita GDP…BUT… –Small total economy
India’s Modern Economy India’s Lesser Developed Areas –India’s economy dwarfs that of other South Asian countries –Prosperous west and poorer east –North India states economies are generally stagnate –Caste tensions exist in these areas
India’s Modern Economy India’s Centers of Economic Growth –Punjab and Haryana are showcase states of Green Revolution –Western states are noted for their industrial and financial power Indian diaspora (migration of large numbers of Indians to foreign countries) Bangalore is a growing high-tech center 1990s: liberalization of the economy, regulations reduced
Economics and Population Mobilizing India’s cities by shoring up infrastructure is one of the keys to its economic goals. Mumbai/Delhi industrial corridor Stabilizing population growth is another key to achieving MDC status, especially for India with over 1 billion people. India's booming population
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: India vs. Pakistan Life Expectancy: About even at 60 for males & 61 for females; Under Age 5 Mortality: India is doing better (90) than Pakistan (126); Illiteracy Rate: India better BUT neither are good! India = 34% male & 62% female; Pakistan = 45% male & 71% female! Female Labor force: India 32%; Pakistan 28% *Remember the presence of Islamic Fundamentalism impacts Pakistan’s stats where females are concerned…
Social Development …. SRI LANKA: according to your text, “Sri Lanka must be considered one of the world’s great success stories of social development.” Why? They have achieved significant health & educational gains DESPITE a lackluster economy & political instability! HOW? The Government funds universal primary education & healthcare. They have a well-educated, relatively healthy, slow growing population. This should help them to grow their economy if they can achieve & maintain political stability.
Assessing the status of women… Malala Yousefzai (Pakistan) Malala on Daily Show Malala Fund link violence against women in South Asia South Asian women in Politics