# The Periodic Table. The Father of the Periodic Table— Dmitri Mendeleev Mendeleev (1834-1907) was the first scientist to notice a relationship between.

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The Periodic Table

The Father of the Periodic Table— Dmitri Mendeleev Mendeleev (1834-1907) was the first scientist to notice a relationship between the elements Mendeleev (1834-1907) was the first scientist to notice a relationship between the elements Around 1865 he arranged his periodic table by atomic mass Around 1865 he arranged his periodic table by atomic mass

Dmitri Mendeleev

The Periodic Table Henry Moseley (1887-1915) later discovered that the periodic nature of the elements was associated with atomic number, not atomic mass. Henry Moseley (1887-1915) later discovered that the periodic nature of the elements was associated with atomic number, not atomic mass.

The Periodic Table Column = Group or Family 18 columns on the Periodic Table Row = Period 7 rows on the Periodic Table

What does the information in the box tell me? 1H1.008 Atomic Number = # of protons and # of electrons Atomic Mass = # of protons plus neutrons Elemental Symbol

Coloring the Periodic Table Families Some images are from www.chem4kids.com www.chem4kids.com

Table # 1 States of Matter SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES

Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids Metals are to the left of the stair- step Hydrogen (H) the only nonmetal on the metal side Nonmetals are on the right of the stair-step Semi-metals, “metalloids,” touch the stair-step

Properties of Metals Physical Properties Physical Properties Shininess Shininess Malleabilty Malleabilty Ductility Ductility Conductivity Conductivity High Melting Points High Melting Points

Properties of Nonmetals Physical Properties Physical Properties (Lacks most of the properties of a Metal) (Lacks most of the properties of a Metal) Dull Dull Brittle Brittle Poor Conductors Poor Conductors Most are gases at room temperature Most are gases at room temperature

Properties of Metalloids Physical Properties: Physical Properties: (Have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals) (Have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals) All are solids at room temperature All are solids at room temperature Brittle Brittle Hard Hard

Table # 2, 3 Main Groups METALS METALLOIDS NONMETALS

Families on the Periodic Table Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into families bases on their chemical properties. Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into families bases on their chemical properties. Each family has a specific name to differentiate it from the other families in the periodic table. Each family has a specific name to differentiate it from the other families in the periodic table. Elements in each family Elements in each family react differently with other elements.

ALKALI METALS Group 1 Hydrogen is not a member, it is a non-metal Hydrogen is not a member, it is a non-metal 1 electron in the outer shell 1 electron in the outer shell Soft and silvery metals Soft and silvery metals Very reactive, esp. with water Very reactive, esp. with water Conduct electricity Conduct electricity Never found as pure elements/ only compounds! Never found as pure elements/ only compounds!

ALKALINE EARTH METALS Group 2 2 electrons in the outer shell 2 electrons in the outer shell White and malleable White and malleable Reactive, but less than Alkali metals Reactive, but less than Alkali metals Conduct electricity Conduct electricity Usually found as compounds Usually found as compounds

TRANSITION METALS Groups in the middle Good conductors of heat and electricity. Good conductors of heat and electricity. Some are used for jewelry. Some are used for jewelry. Can bond with many elements in a variety of shapes. Can bond with many elements in a variety of shapes.

BORON FAMILY Group 3 3 electrons in the outer shell 3 electrons in the outer shell Most are metals Most are metals Boron is a metalloid Boron is a metalloid

CARBON FAMILY Group 4 4 electrons in the outer shell 4 electrons in the outer shell Contains metals, metalloids, and a non-metal Carbon (C) Contains metals, metalloids, and a non-metal Carbon (C)

NITROGEN FAMILY Group 5 5 electrons in the outer shell 5 electrons in the outer shell Can share electrons to form compounds Can share electrons to form compounds Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metals Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metals

OXYGEN FAMILY Group 6 6 electrons in the outer shell 6 electrons in the outer shell Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metals Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metals Reactive Reactive

Halogens Group 7 7 electrons in the outer shell 7 electrons in the outer shell All are non- metals All are non- metals Very reactive are often bonded with elements from Group 1 Very reactive are often bonded with elements from Group 1

Noble Gases Group 8 Exist as gases Exist as gases Non-metals Non-metals 8 electrons in the outer shell = Full 8 electrons in the outer shell = Full Not reactive with other elements Not reactive with other elements

Rare Earth Metals Some are Radioactive Some are Radioactive The rare earths are silver, silvery-white, or gray metals. The rare earths are silver, silvery-white, or gray metals. Conduct electricity Conduct electricity Lanthanides Lanthanides Actinides Actinides

Table # 3 The Families

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