Presentation on theme: "Height of Imperialism 1800-1914. Time period1880’s Focus: IMPERIALISM-seizure of a country or territory by a strong country Europe began to view."— Presentation transcript:
Time period1880’s Focus: IMPERIALISM-seizure of a country or territory by a strong country Europe began to view Asia & Africa as a source of raw materials & markets for industrial manufactured goods.
Imperialist motives ◦ economic motive ◦ heated European power rivalries-colonies =power & national pride. ◦ social Darwinism & racism ◦ white mans burden to bring our advancement through a religious & humanitarian approach. “ The path to progress is strewn with the wrecks of nations; traces are everywhere to be seen of the inferior races. Yet, these dead people are the stepping stones on which mankind has arisen to the higher intellectual and deeper emotional life of today.” A British Professor
Forms of Control ◦ Colony- gov. internally by foreign power ◦ Protectorate – own internal gov that is controlled by outside power=Protection ◦ Sphere of Influence-outside power claims trading privileges ◦ Economic control – controlled by Private business interest rather than other govs.
Methods of Management ◦ Indirect Control used existing political leaders Local leaders trained in controlling powers gov style Hope – eventually local pop gov themselves Usually cheaper & preserved culture ◦ Direct Control Local leaders replaced with Imperialist countries leaders
Imperial powers didn’t want colonies to develop industry Colonial policy stress exportation Plantation agriculture ◦ Local people(low wages)=profit for owner
West Africa ◦ Europeans need raw materials. Peanuts, timber, hides and palm oil ◦ 1800’s slave trade declined=new trade interests ◦ France & Great Britain were the 1 st to take interest in the west coast
North Africa ◦ Egypt became independent from Ottomans1805 ◦ Modern reforms 1854 Suez Canal (connect Mediterranean with Red Sea) British interested in Egypt & Canal (life line to India). Egypt revolts-became a British protectorate in 1914. French controlled Algeria &Tunisia, a protectorate over Morocco. Italy takes Libya, fails with Ethiopia
Central Africa David Livingstone ◦ Explorer-find river route to open central Africa Christianity & Commerce ◦ Replaces by Henry Stanley Detested Africa Congo Route King Leopold II of Belgium ◦ Claims territories of the Congo ◦ Rubber
East Africa Britain vs Germany ◦ Germany late to race ◦ Britain wanted to connect colonies north to south ◦ To settle conflicting claims the Berlin Conference met. recognized British & German territory in East Africa.
The Boers, or Afrikaners (descendants of Dutch settlers occupied Cape town. ◦ later seized By British (Cape Colony.) Angered Boers mover North (Great Trek) ◦ 2 Republics Orange Free States Transvaal Battled with Zulu
Cecil Rhodes 1880’s British policy influenced by him. Promoted British expansion.- Rhodesia Discovered gold & diamonds Started Boer War –wanted to connect Cairo and Cape by rail The Boer War British vs Boer. British won-1910 independent Union of South Africa.
By 1914 only Liberia & Ethiopia were Free Lost of culture-assimilation Social class tensions-old elite segregation Emergence of nationalism ◦ New Urban educated class Western education See importance of western ways Want equality & own identity
“life-line to India” Suez Canal By 1914 the only independent states in Africa were what? Liberia and Ethiopia Incorporate a country within another state? Annex In the late 19 th century, the real driving force behind colonization of Central Africa was who? Leopold II of Belgium
After opening the Suez Canal in 1869, Britain took an active interest in what country? Egypt Medical missionary and explorer in Africa David Livingston After its defeat in Ethiopia in 1896, Italy seized what? Tripoli Dutch settlers in South Africa Afrikaners 19 th century Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali
Britain, Germany, and France all had colonies where by 1900? West Africa