Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Business Research Process"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Overview of Business Research Process Chapter 3An Overview of Business Research ProcessReferences:Business Research Book of VUResearch Methods For Business (Uma Sekaran)Business Research Methods (William G. Zikmund)Resource Person: Furqan-ul-haq Siddiqui
2 Business Research Process Research task is usually treated as a sequential process/steps involving several clearly defined steps.These steps may differ in various situations. Recycling, adding, and skipping occur.Various approaches suggest somewhat different steps – ranging from five steps to eleven steps.The variation may be due to purposes, and methods used by the researches, though some researchers may combine some of the steps.Completion of each step before going to next is not required.
3 The Business Research Process The Business Research ProcessProblem definitionTheoreticalFrameworkVariablesIdentification and labellingGeneration ofHypothesisObservation Broad problem areaPreliminary Data Gathering ScientificResearchDesignData Collection, analysis & interpretationNODeductionResearch Question Answered?DecisionMakingReportPresentationReportWritingYes
4 1. Observation/Broad Problem Area The process begins with a researcher selecting a topic – a general area of study or issue such as HR, finance, crime, marketing, or leadership styles.The specific issues that need to be researched within the situation may not be identified at this stage. E.g.Problem currently existing in an organizational setting that need to be solved (Inefficiency in production)Areas that a manager believes need to be improved in the organization (improving the existing policies)
5 2. Preliminary Data Collection This step may be considered as part of the exploratory research. An exploration typically begins with a search for published data and studies.Some secondary sources of data are statistical bulletins, government publications, information published or unpublished, case studies, online data, web sites, discussions and the Internet.Such sources can provide data which becomes part of the background information (about the organization, groups of people, context of the issue).A pilot experiment, also called a pilot study, is a small scale preliminary study conducted before the main research in order to check the feasibility or to improve the design of the research. Pilot studies therefore may not be appropriate for case studies.
6 3. Problem DefinitionAfter having discussions with the professionals, with the persons to whom the issue relates, and the review of literature, the researcher is in a position to narrow down from its original broad base and define the issue clearly.Translate the broad issue into a research question.Problem is defined as any situation where a gap exists between the actual and the desired ideal state.
7 A research problem in general refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants a solution for the same.Subject which is overdone must not be selected.Too narrow or too vague problems should not be chosen.The problem should be chosen in such a way that the ingredients required for the study should be within the reach of a researcher.The importance of the subject, time ,efficiency of the researchers is also an essential requisite factor.Selection of problem must be preceded by a preliminary study.Controversial subject should not be chosen by an average researcher.
8 For example a productivity decline of workers may be an issue For example a productivity decline of workers may be an issue. The management may have tried to solve it by the provision of incentive but did not work. The researcher may have to dig deep and find the possible factors like the morale and motivation of the workers having some other antecedents. There could be similar other broad issues which have to be narrowed down to research questions like:To what extent has the new advertising campaign been successful in creating the high quality, consumer-centered corporate image that it was intended to produce?Has the new packaging affected the sale of the products?Will the day care centers affect the productivity of female workers?Why the divorce rate is on the increase in Pakistan?Why the family in Pakistan is changing?What could be the impact of changing family patterns on the sales volume of products?
9 4. Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework discusses the interrelationships among the variables that are deemed to be integral to the dynamics of the situation being investigated.Theoretical framework addresses:Elaborates the relationship among the variables.Explains the logic underlying these relationships.Describes the nature, and direction of the relationships.
10 5. Generation of Hypotheses After determining the important variables relevant to an issue and established the logical reasoning in the theoretical framework, we test whether the relationships that have been theorized do in fact hold true.The results of these tests offer us part of the answers to the formulated research questions, whether these relate basic research or to applied research.
11 6. Research DesignResearch design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information.The researcher must specify the sources of information, and the research method or technique to be followed in thee study.
12 7. Data Collection, Data Processing, and Analysis Data collection is integral part of the research design, though we are dealing it separately.Data can be collected in a variety of ways, in different settings – field or lab – and from different sources.Data processing generally begins with the editing and coding of thee data.Analysis is the application of reasoning to understand and interpret the data that have been collected.
13 8. Testing the Hypotheses; Answering the Research Questions The analysis and interpretation of the data shall be the means to testing the formulated hypotheses as well as finding answers to the research questions.Making recommendations may also be part of this process.9. Report Writing10. Report Presentation11. Decision Making
14 Problem discovery Selection of exploratory research technique and DefinitionSamplingSelection ofexploratory researchtechniqueProbabilityNonprobabilitySecondary(historical)dataExperiencesurveyPilotstudyCasestudyCollection ofdata(fieldwork)DataGatheringDataProcessingandAnalysisEditing andcodingdataProblem definition(statement ofresearch objectives)DataprocessingSelection ofbasic researchmethodResearch DesignConclusionsand ReportInterpretationoffindingsExperimentSurveyObservationSecondaryData StudyReportLaboratoryFieldInterviewQuestionnaire
15 Steps in the Research Process Identifying and Defining Problem/ OpportunityPlanning the Research DesignSelecting a Research MethodSelecting a Sampling ProcedureData CollectionEvaluating the DataPreparing and Presenting the Research Report
17 Marketing Research Process "Marketing research is the function that provides information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs the methods for collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analyzes, and communicates the findings and their implications."
18 Research Process Flow Chart Define research problemReview concepts and theoriesReview previous Research FindingsFormulate hypothesisDesign researchData collectionAnalyze dataInterpretation and report writing