Problem/Research Question A problem is a question to be considered, solved or answered. Everybody constantly encounters minor problems everyday. Most days start with the question, "Should I get out of bed or not?" That is a problem.
Question/Problem: Ask a question about something observed. Why? How? What? Question to be solved. Must be about something measurable.
Research: Research the problem? At least three sources: How can you find the answer to your question? Internet Videos Interview someone that knows a lot about the topic Books
Hypothesis Educated guess about how things work. Prediction After background research from reliable sources. Focus on one variable only.
Hypothesis It is a prediction about the relationship between variables & can be tested. The hypothesis is formed by examining the observations carefully and making a an educated guess as to what the outcome might be.
Experiment Tests your hypothesis. Is it accepted (right) or rejected (wrong) ? Change only one variable at a time. Use a control or control group ( A group that has nothing done to it. Standard used for comparison in an experiment.) In order for results to be valid, conduct several tests (Minimum 5 trials for Middle School).
Experiment Record your data in a data table. Numerical (quantitative) data organized in rows and columns The specific independent variables are listed The number of trials are listed Blanks are left for the data (dependent variable) to be filled in
Experiment: Describing the Data TrialDistanceTimeSpeed 1 2 3 4 5 6 AVERAGE
Data Analysis Reduce the data Average (Mean) Graph Graph the data to look for trends & relationships. Statistical Analysis for High School where appropriate.
Conclusion Summary of your experiment. After your experiment, analyze your data to see if your hypothesis was accepted or rejected. If hypothesis is rejected, g ive possible reasons for the difference between your hypothesis and the experimental results.
ABSTRACT After all research, investigations, data collection, data analysis, and conclusions are finished, you must write and abstract. The abstract is 250 words only. What is in those 250 words?
What Is an Abstract? A brief, written explanation of the research project, consisting of a succinct description of the project ’ s purpose, the procedures followed, the data collected, and the conclusions reached. A clear and simple summary statement of the main points of the experiment A self-contained statement that must make sense all by itself.
DOK Level 4 Extended Thinking Time alone is not the distinguishing factor TaskThinking Collecting data sample over several monthsRecall Organizing the data in a chartSkills/Concepts Using this chart to make and justify prediction Strategic Thinking Developing a generalized model from this data and applying it to a new situation Extended Thinking
SubjectDepth of Knowledge Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4 Science (Recall and Reproduction) Requires the recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or a simple procedure, as well as performance of a simple science process or procedure. Level 1 only requires students to demonstrate a rote response, use a well-known formula, follow a set procedure (like a recipe), or perform a clearly defined series of steps. Examples: Recall or recognize a fact, term, or property. Represent in words or diagrams a scientific concept or relationship. Provide or recognize a standard scientific representation for simple phenomenon. Perform a routine procedure, such as measuring length. (Skills and Concepts) Includes the engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response. Level 2 activities include making observations and collecting data; classifying, organizing, and comparing data; and organizing and displaying data in tables, graphs, and charts. Items require students to make some decisions as to how to approach the question or problem. Examples: Specify and explain the relationship between facts, terms, properties, or variables. Describe and explain examples and non- examples of science concepts. Select a procedure according to specified criteria and perform it. Formulate a routine problem, given data and conditions. Organize, represent, and interpret data. (Strategic Thinking) Requires reasoning, planning, using evidence, and a higher level of thinking than the previous two levels. The cognitive demands at Level 3 are complex and abstract. The complexity does not result only from the fact that there could be multiple answers, a possibility for both Levels 1 and 2, but because the multi-step task requires more demanding reasoning. Examples: Identify research questions and design investigations for a scientific problem. Solve non-routine problems. Develop a scientific model for a complex situation. Form conclusions from experimental data. (Extended Thinking) Requires complex reasoning, experimental design and planning, and probably will require an extended period of time either for the science investigation required by an objective, or for carrying out the multiple steps of an assessment item. Examples: Based on data provided from a complex experiment that is novel to the student; deduct the fundamental relationship between several controlled variables. Conduct an investigation, from specifying a problem to designing and carrying out an experiment, to analyzing its data and forming conclusions.
Real Life Connections Describe how the data from the experiment can be used to solve a problem or make the public aware of findings.
Improvements for Future Research If you could redo this experiment, how would you improve the process to obtain better conclusions. If you were to continue this project in the future, what would be the next research (what questions do you want to answer now).