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The Practice of Statistics, 5th Edition Starnes, Tabor, Yates, Moore Bedford Freeman Worth Publishers CHAPTER 1 Exploring Data 1.2 Displaying Quantitative Data with Graphs

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Learning Objectives After this section, you should be able to: The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition2 MAKE and INTERPRET dotplots and stemplots of quantitative data DESCRIBE the overall pattern of a distribution and IDENTIFY any outliers IDENTIFY the shape of a distribution MAKE and INTERPRET histograms of quantitative data COMPARE distributions of quantitative data Displaying Quantitative Data with Graphs

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition3 Dotplots One of the simplest graphs to construct and interpret is a dotplot. Each data value is shown as a dot above its location on a number line. How to make a dotplot: 1)Draw a horizontal axis (a number line) and label it with the variable name. 2)Scale the axis from the minimum to the maximum value. 3)Mark a dot above the location on the horizontal axis corresponding to each data value. How to make a dotplot: 1)Draw a horizontal axis (a number line) and label it with the variable name. 2)Scale the axis from the minimum to the maximum value. 3)Mark a dot above the location on the horizontal axis corresponding to each data value.

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition4 The purpose of a graph is to help us understand the data. After you make a graph, always ask, “What do I see?” Examining the Distribution of a Quantitative Variable How to Examine the Distribution of a Quantitative Variable 1)In any graph, look for the overall pattern and for striking departures from that pattern. 2)Describe the overall pattern of a distribution by its: Shape Center Spread 3)Note individual values that fall outside the overall pattern. These departures are called outliers. How to Examine the Distribution of a Quantitative Variable 1)In any graph, look for the overall pattern and for striking departures from that pattern. 2)Describe the overall pattern of a distribution by its: Shape Center Spread 3)Note individual values that fall outside the overall pattern. These departures are called outliers. Don’t forget your SOCS!

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition5 Describing Shape When you describe a distribution’s shape, concentrate on the main features. Look for rough symmetry or clear skewness. A distribution is roughly symmetric if the right and left sides of the graph are approximately mirror images of each other. A distribution is skewed to the right (right-skewed) if the right side of the graph (containing the half of the observations with larger values) is much longer than the left side. It is skewed to the left (left-skewed) if the left side of the graph is much longer than the right side. A distribution is roughly symmetric if the right and left sides of the graph are approximately mirror images of each other. A distribution is skewed to the right (right-skewed) if the right side of the graph (containing the half of the observations with larger values) is much longer than the left side. It is skewed to the left (left-skewed) if the left side of the graph is much longer than the right side. Symmetric Skewed-left Skewed-right

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition6 Comparing Distributions Some of the most interesting statistics questions involve comparing two or more groups. Always discuss shape, center, spread, and possible outliers whenever you compare distributions of a quantitative variable. Compare the distributions of household size for these two countries. Don’t forget your SOCS!

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition7 Stemplots Another simple graphical display for small data sets is a stemplot. (Also called a stem-and-leaf plot.) Stemplots give us a quick picture of the distribution while including the actual numerical values. How to make a stemplot: 1)Separate each observation into a stem (all but the final digit) and a leaf (the final digit). 2)Write all possible stems from the smallest to the largest in a vertical column and draw a vertical line to the right of the column. 3)Write each leaf in the row to the right of its stem. 4)Arrange the leaves in increasing order out from the stem. 5)Provide a key that explains in context what the stems and leaves represent. How to make a stemplot: 1)Separate each observation into a stem (all but the final digit) and a leaf (the final digit). 2)Write all possible stems from the smallest to the largest in a vertical column and draw a vertical line to the right of the column. 3)Write each leaf in the row to the right of its stem. 4)Arrange the leaves in increasing order out from the stem. 5)Provide a key that explains in context what the stems and leaves represent.

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition8 Stemplots These data represent the responses of 20 female AP Statistics students to the question, “How many pairs of shoes do you have?” Construct a stemplot. 5026 31571924222338 13501334233049131551 Stems 1234512345 Add leaves 1 93335 2 664233 3 1840 4 9 5 0701 Order leaves 1 33359 2 233466 3 0148 4 9 5 0017 Add a key Key: 4|9 represents a female student who reported having 49 pairs of shoes.

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition9 Stemplots When data values are “bunched up”, we can get a better picture of the distribution by splitting stems. Two distributions of the same quantitative variable can be compared using a back-to-back stemplot with common stems. 5026 31571924222338 13501334233049131551 001122334455001122334455 Key: 4|9 represents a student who reported having 49 pairs of shoes. Females 1476512388710 1145227510357 Males 0 4 0 555677778 1 0000124 1 2 3 3 58 4 5 Females 333 95 4332 66 410 8 9 100 7 Males “split stems”

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition10 What are we actually doing when we make a histogram?

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition11 Histograms Quantitative variables often take many values. A graph of the distribution may be clearer if nearby values are grouped together. The most common graph of the distribution of one quantitative variable is a histogram. How to make a histogram: 1)Divide the range of data into classes of equal width. 2)Find the count (frequency) or percent (relative frequency) of individuals in each class. 3)Label and scale your axes and draw the histogram. The height of the bar equals its frequency. Adjacent bars should touch, unless a class contains no individuals. How to make a histogram: 1)Divide the range of data into classes of equal width. 2)Find the count (frequency) or percent (relative frequency) of individuals in each class. 3)Label and scale your axes and draw the histogram. The height of the bar equals its frequency. Adjacent bars should touch, unless a class contains no individuals.

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition12 Histograms This table presents data on the percent of residents from each state who were born outside of the U.S. Frequency Table ClassCount 0 to <520 5 to <1013 10 to <159 15 to <205 20 to <252 25 to <301 Total50 Percent of foreign-born residents Number of States

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition13 Using Histograms Wisely Here are several cautions based on common mistakes students make when using histograms. Cautions! 1)Don’t confuse histograms and bar graphs. 2)Don’t use counts (in a frequency table) or percents (in a relative frequency table) as data. 3)Use percents instead of counts on the vertical axis when comparing distributions with different numbers of observations. 4)Just because a graph looks nice, it’s not necessarily a meaningful display of data. Cautions! 1)Don’t confuse histograms and bar graphs. 2)Don’t use counts (in a frequency table) or percents (in a relative frequency table) as data. 3)Use percents instead of counts on the vertical axis when comparing distributions with different numbers of observations. 4)Just because a graph looks nice, it’s not necessarily a meaningful display of data.

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition14 When to UseBivariate data with time and another variable How to construct 1. Draw horizontal and vertical axes. Label the horizontal axis and include an appropriate scale for the x-variable. Label the vertical axis and include an appropriate scale for the y-variable. 2. For each (x, y) pair in the data set, add a dot in the appropriate location in the display. 3. Connect each dot in order What to look for trends or patterns over time Time Series Plots

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition15 The Christmas Price Index is computed each year by PNC Advisors. It is a humorous look at the cost of giving all the gifts described in the popular Christmas song “The Twelve Days of Christmas” (www.pncchristmaspriceindex.com). Describe any trends or patterns that you see. Why is there a downward trend between 1993 & 1995?

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The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition16 Graphical DisplayVariable TypeData TypePurpose Bar ChartUnivariateCategorical Display data distribution Comparative Bar Chart Univariate for 2 or more groups Categorical Compare 2 or more groups DotplotUnivariateNumerical Display data distribution Comparative dotplot Univariate for 2 or more groups Numerical Compare 2 or more groups Stem-and-leaf display UnivariateNumerical Display data distribution Comparative stem- and-leaf Univariate for 2 groups Numerical Compare 2 or more groups HistogramUnivariateNumerical Display data distribution ScatterplotBivariateNumerical Investigate relationship between 2 variables Time series plot Univariate, collected over time Numerical Investigate trend over time Use the following table to determine an appropriate graphical display a data set.

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Section Summary In this section, we learned how to… The Practice of Statistics, 5 th Edition17 MAKE and INTERPRET dotplots and stemplots of quantitative data DESCRIBE the overall pattern of a distribution IDENTIFY the shape of a distribution MAKE and INTERPRET histograms of quantitative data COMPARE distributions of quantitative data Data Analysis: Making Sense of Data

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