3 Feudalism was a system of promise that governed how knights and nobles dealt witheach other.
4 During the Medieval time period, Europe split into many kingdoms each ruled by many kings. Kings hired nobles to help them run their kingdom – specifically to help protect his land.Nobles swore loyalty to that king and provided protection when the king wanted it. In return, the king gave land to his noble.Nobles could become very powerful – some became as powerful as kings.Nobles needed soldiers to protect their land. The best soldiers were knights – warriors who fought on horseback.
5 Knights and LandNobles gave knights fiefs (feefs) or a piece of land, instead of money for their military service.If a noble gave land to a knight in this way, he was called a lord.Knights promised to support the nobles in battle and other matters.Knights were called vassals if they promised support for land.
6 A Lord’s Duties Lords sent help to his vassal if an enemy attacked. Lords also couldn’t cheat his vassal or punish for no reason.Lords often built castles to protect themselves and his vassals
7 A Vassal’s Duties Fight with and for his Lord when called upon. Give their lords money on special occasions.Give their lords food and shelter if he came to visit.A vassal could become a lord if he gained enough land. In this case, a vassal could also be a lord.A knight could also accept fiefs from two different lords and become a vassal to both.
8 Feudalism Spreads It was created by the Franks. Frankish knights introduced feudalism Northern Italy, Spain, and Germany. Feudalism then spread into eastern Europe.It was brought to Britain in the 1000’s by William – who in 1066 sailed into England and defeated the English king at the Battle of Hastings and then declared himself William the Conqueror.
9 The Manor SystemWhen Knights received a fief from his lord – he needed a way to farm it as he didn’t have time to farm this land.Peasants were farmers that didn’t own any land.A new economic system (Manor System) developed out of this need. Knights allowed peasants to farm land on their estates and in return, peasants had to give knights food or other payment.A large estate owned by a knight was called a Manor.
10 Peasants, Serfs, and Other Workers Most medieval lords kept about ¼ to 1/3 of their land for themselves – the rest they divided up among the peasants and serfs.Serfswere workers who were tied to the land on which they lived.Not slaves but couldn’t leave without permission of the lord.Spent most of their time farming the landIn return, they got a small piece of land to farm for themselves and protections against outlaws.Manors produced and provided everything the people needed that lived there.
11 Women in the Middle Ages Manor LordsLords controlled everything that happened on his land.His word was the lawThey punished those who misbehaved and collected taxes from those that loved on his manor.Women in the Middle AgesGenerally had fewer rights than men.Had to obey the wishes of their husbands and fathers
12 Eleanor of AquitaineOne of the most powerful women in the Middle AgesShe ruled Aquitaine, an area of France, as a king’s vassal.She married King Louis VII and became the Queen of France.Later, she divorced Louis and married King Henry II and became the Queen of England.Two of her sons later became the kings of England.
13 Towns and Trade GrowMost lived on manors and cities were small. But around the 1000’s, cities started to grow.Cities grew because:Europe’s population grew. Why? Partly because there was more food from new farming technology like: heavier plows and horse collars so that farmers could use horses (instead of oxen who were bigger and slower) to plow fields.Trade increased and goods from all over Africa and Asia to Europe to make money.This led to a decline in Feudalism along with knights beginning to demand money instead of land for services, and serfs and peasants leaving manors for towns…slowly bringing an end to the manor system.