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Objectives To discuss the history of computer virus outbreaks.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives To discuss the history of computer virus outbreaks."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Objectives To discuss the history of computer virus outbreaks.
To examine the difference between computer worms and viruses. To discover the various types of computer worms and viruses and how to protect a computer. To assess the consequences associated with computer worms and viruses.

3 Main Menu Introduction to Computer Worms & Viruses
History of Computer Worms & Viruses Protecting Against Computer Worms & Viruses

4 Introduction to Computer Worms & Viruses

5 A Computer Virus Is a malicious computer program created by a user with objectives to harm or steal another’s property Is also referred to as Malware Is important for users to be aware of Computer Virus: a malicious computer program created by a user with objectives to harm or steal another’s property

6 A Computer Virus Is a piece of code attaching itself to a larger, more frequently used program it then modifies the program this is referred to as “piggybacking” Is active and running only when the host program is active Is designed to multiply and infect other programs the computer runs Protect themselves by hiding in a host program Host Program: a large, frequently run program attached to the virus Piggybacking: the act of a computer virus attaching itself to another computer program

7 A Computer Virus Begins to carry out whatever malicious activity it is supposed to, once it has multiplied and infected other programs the malicious activity is known as the payload Can spread fast, slow or not spread at all if the virus programmer made an error in designing the virus then it will not spread at all Can remain dormant in a computer until a specified time Can delete all data and files on a computer Payload: the malicious activity a computer virus or worm is designed to do

8 A Computer Virus Can affect different parts of the computer
such as: the hard drive a CD/DVD drive any type of storage device Can spread through virtually any computer to server or computer to computer contact Examples of spreading medians:  Internet downloading attachments or music CD or thumb drive

9 A Computer Worm Is an independent program Is classified by two types:
it does not attach itself to files or programs Is classified by two types: a network worm a host worm Computer Worm: an independent program which multiplies itself by copying a segment of itself onto another computer

10 A Computer Worm Can contain malicious instructions to hinder a computer’s performance Uses flaws or holes in the network to gain access to individual computers this gives worms the ability to move extremely fast through a network infecting computers it could possibly infect an entire network of computers within seconds

11 A Network Worm Multiplies by copying a segment of itself onto another computer over a network the segments of the worm, on various computers in a network, remain in contact with each other if one segment of the worm fails or is removed, then the other remaining segments must find another computer, prepare it for the worm and then add the segment to the rest of the worm this is how the worm moves through a network Network Worm: a computer worm which copies different segments of itself to computers linked together in a network

12 A Host Worm Is completely contained on one running computer
Copies itself to another computer through a network Deletes itself from the original computer, once it has moved to another computer Does not fragment or segment itself a network worm does run different segments of itself on different computers Host Worm: a computer worm which copies itself to another computer in a network and then deletes itself completely from the previous computer in which it was contained

13 Similarities of a Worm & Virus
Include: they both usually contain malicious instructions designed to harm a computer and annoy a user they cause an increasing amount of damage the more computers the worms or viruses infect the more computers they have access to infect by networking

14 Similarities of a Worm & Virus
Include: protecting themselves by hiding in host programs or changing their appearance to evade detection destroying evidence of their presence and wrongdoings spreading through a network, the Internet, software, s or memory devices (such as a rewritable CD) causing system or network slowdowns

15 Differences Between a Worm & Virus
Include: a virus requires a host program a worm is an independent program a virus modifies other programs a worm usually does not a virus only executes when the host program is running a worm is always active

16 Differences Between a Worm & Virus
Include: a virus uses host programs to replicate a worm replicates itself over a network a virus needs to be activated or downloaded (such as a virus sent through , it must be double-clicked in order for it to be able to run) a worm does not need to be activated it will move or copy itself to a computer without the user’s knowledge

17 A Summary of Differences
Virus requires host program modifies other programs only active when host is active uses host to replicate requires user involvement to be activated or downloaded Worm independent program does not modify other programs always active and running on the computer self replicating over a network copies itself to a computer without the users permission or knowledge

18 A Trojan Horse Is a malicious program disguised in a seemingly innocent program Is an analogy referencing the “Trojan Horse” used by the Greeks to obtain access to the city of Troy The Greeks were losing in the battle to overtake the city of Troy, so their leader, Odysseus, built a seemingly innocent giant wooden horse with a hollow belly, large enough for soldiers to hide in. He offered it to the Trojans as a sign of peace. The Trojans accepted the gift and celebrated their victory. Then at night while they were sleeping, the Greeks snuck out of the horse, which they were hiding in, and took the city of Troy. Trojan Horse: a malicious program disguised inside of another program seemingly beneficial or harmless

19 A Trojan Horse Will generally gain access to administrative areas on a computer once it has gained access to these areas, it will create a back door this gives the creator of the Trojan horse unauthorized access to the user’s computer and the information it contains Will sometimes monitor keystrokes and browsing activity this information is sent to companies sending the user content and information they did not request Can be discreet meaning they do not leave any trace of their presence

20 Introduction to Computer Worms & Viruses
Assessment Introduction to Computer Worms & Viruses

21 Assessment Which of the following is also referred to as malware?
Payload Network worm Computer virus Piggybacking Which of the following is a computer worm which copies different segments of itself to computers linked together in a network? Host worm

22 Assessment 3. Which of the following is NOT a similarity between a worm and virus? They both cause system or network slowdowns. The both hide in host programs or change their appearance to evade detection. They both use host programs to replicate. They both can spread through the Internet. 4. Which of the following is true about a worm? It requires a host program. It moves or copies itself to a computer without the user’s knowledge. It only executes when the host program is running. It modifies other programs.

23 Assessment 5. Which of the following is the act of a computer virus attaching itself to another computer program? Host worm Piggybacking Network worm Computer virus

24 History of Computer Worms & Viruses

25 The History of the Computer Virus
Began in 1949 when John Von Neumann wrote a paper called “Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata” this paper assumed a computer program could self-replicate this theory was later called “Core Wars”

26 The History of the Computer Virus
Became a reality in 1982 when the first virus called the “Elk Cloner” was created by Rich Skrenta The virus created by Skrenta was created as a prank on his friends. He modified floppy disks containing games or software which were swapped within his group of friends. Instead of running the software or game the disk displayed taunting messages.

27 The “Elk Cloner” Virus Was created as what is now known as a boot sector virus a copy of the virus is downloaded off of a disk when the computer is booted up then when someone else inserts a disk into the computer, the virus is downloaded to the new disk Began as an innocent prank however this prank opened the door for numerous, harmful viruses to be created

28 The History of the Computer Virus
Progressed in the 80s and 90s, when hackers developed new ways to steal information and inhibit regular computer use Took significant strides with the following viruses: “The Brain” in 1986 created in Pakistan by brothers Basit Amjad and Farooq Alvi this was a boot sector virus and technically the first stealth virus, which means if anyone attempted to view the infected sector, the virus would replace it with the clean, original version of the sector

29 The History of the Computer Virus
Stealth Virus: a virus in which if anyone attempts to view an infected sector, the virus will replace it with the clean, original version of the sector Boot Sector Virus: a virus which copies itself onto a computer off of a disk when the computer is booted up; then when someone else inserts a disk into the computer, the virus is downloaded to the new disk

30 The History of the Computer Virus
Has been developed by hackers experimenting with other ideas of viruses and then building on them Was greatly effected by the “Vienna Virus” this virus was picked apart by Ralph Burger he then wrote a book called Computer Viruses: A High Tech Disease

31 Burger’s Book Explained the process of creating a virus
Was widely publicized Made computer viruses popular, and hackers began widely creating and distributing viruses

32 The History of Computer Worms
Begins with the idea of computer viruses Made its first significant stride around 1980 when researchers at Xerox Palo Alto Research center developed the first worm for experimental research this worm was developed to handle mail, administer diagnostics and execute other functions was created without malicious intentions

33 The Morris Worm Was created by Robert Morris in 1988
Was the first worm to be distributed over a network without other users being aware of its presence Was designed for experimental purposes Was released onto a network to remain present without negatively affecting the network

34 The Morris Worm Began clogging the network
by multiple versions of the worm being run on the same machine at once this slowed the system by using all of its processing power, and inhibited new users from accessing the network Robert Morris went on trial and was convicted and received a fine, probation and community service Affected approximately 6,000 servers and caused between $10 million to $100 million dollars worth of damage

35 Significant Viruses and Worms in History: A Timeline
1949 – John Von Neumann wrote a paper theorizing a self-replicating computer program 1980 – Researchers at Xerox Palo Alto Research developed the first experimental worm 1982 – First virus, “Elk Cloner”, was created by Rich Skrenta 1986 – “The Brain” was created by brothers Basit and Amjad and Farooq Alvi 1988 – “The Vienna Virus” was picked apart by Ralph Burger who then wrote a book explaining how to create a virus 1988 – “Morris Worm” was the first worm was released damaging computers

36 Significant Viruses and Worms in History: A Timeline
1993 – The “SatanBug” was created devastating many computers the FBI investigated and discovered the creator was a child  1996 – The “Concept Virus” was released and devastated the computer world first virus widely affecting Word® documents 1999 – The “Melissa Worm” was released this macro devastated many commercial organizations because of their high usage of Word® and Excel® 2001 – “Code Red” worm was discovered provided control of the Web server to anyone who knew the security had been compromised

37 History of Computer Worms & Viruses
Assessment History of Computer Worms & Viruses

38 Assessment 1. In which year was the first virus, “Elk Cloner”, created? 1949 1976 1980 1982 In which year did researchers at Xerox Palo Alto Research developed the first experimental worm?

39 Assessment 3. Which of the following types of viruses copies itself onto a computer or a disk when the computer is booted up? Internet virus Stealth virus Boot sector virus Boot system virus 4. Who wrote the book “Computer Virus: A High Tech Disease” which explains how to create a virus? John Von Neumann Ralph Burger Rich Skrenta Basit Amjad

40 Assessment 5. Which of the following is the first worm to be distributed over a network without other users being aware of its presence? Satanbug Morris worm Melissa worm Code red

41 Protecting Against Computer Worms & Viruses

42 Computer Virus & Worm Laws
Are at both the state and federal level meaning a hacker can be prosecuted at the state level if the virus did not leave the state or at the federal level if it crossed state boundaries if it is prosecuted at the federal level the U.S. Secret Service will generally investigate Are usually considered a felony Can be found on this is for individual state legislation

43 Computer Virus & Worm Laws at the Federal Level
Began in 1986 with the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act this lays out the prosecution for using the computer for fraud the punishment varies depending on: the amount of damage caused by the worm if the amount of damage caused was intentional this would be difficult to find evidence if the worm or virus was created for commercial advantage or personal financial gain the punishment for such a crime is imprisonment for up to 20 years and/or a fine the fine is decided by a judge

44 The Computer Fraud & Abuse Act
Was amended in 1994 and 1996 it was amended because of: innovative worms and viruses clarification issues the fines and punishments remained the same

45 Clarification Issues Arose from distinguishing whether something was a worm, virus or Trojan horse the legislation was amended so all of the above would fall under the following statement "transmission of a program, information, code, or command" that "cause[s] damage to a computer, computer system, network, information, data or program." 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1030(a)(5)(A).

46 Protecting a Computer Against computer worms and viruses comes from anti-virus software and good judgment from the computer user use good judgment when opening suspicious s or downloading attachments if it really does not look important, then do not open it viruses in s can find a user’s list then send itself in an attachment to all of the contacts on the list

47 Protecting a Computer May be completed by scanning all disks and files used on another computer before opening files this is an easy feature contained in anti-virus software Requires users to scan attachments and downloads from the Internet by an anti-virus software before opening them

48 Protecting a Computer Calls for users in a computer lab to clean up or “reboot” a computer before using this can be done with a simple action called Disk Cleanup it can be found by going to Start>All Programs>Accessories>System Tools> Disk Cleanup this removes all potentially harmful temporary Internet files also be sure to log out when using a public computer

49 Protecting a Computer Requires users to back up all important information periodically in case a virus or worm does destroy all files contained on a computer Involves users to advise caution when accepting copied software sometimes software will be considered public domain, where the manufacturer will give it to users at little or no cost be sure the copied software is from a trusted source

50 Anti-Virus Software Is the most common form of computer protection against viruses and worms Was first introduced in 1990 Needs to be high-quality there is free anti-virus software on the Internet which will not protect a user’s computer as well as a program paid for Needs to updated regularly most software will update itself regularly when connected to the Internet, be sure to install all updates possible

51 Anti-Virus Software Recommended for Windows® includes:
McAfee VirusScan® Norton AntiVirus® Recommended for Mac® includes: McAfee Virex® Intego VirusBarrier®

52 Protecting Against Computer Worms & Viruses
Assessment Protecting Against Computer Worms & Viruses

53 Assessment 1. Which of the following is NOT an action of protecting a computer from viruses? A. Rebooting the computer before using B. Leaving the computer log in when using a public computer C. Scanning downloads before opening them D. Advising caution when accepting copies software 2. According to the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, what is the punishment for creating a worm or virus for fraud? A. Imprisonment for up to five years and/or a fine B. Imprisonment for up to 10 years and/or a fine C. Imprisonment for up to 15 years and/or a fine D. Imprisonment for up to 20 years and/or a fine

54 Assessment 3. In which year was the first anti-virus software introduced? A B C D Which of the following is an anti-virus software recommended only for the Windows® system? A. McAfee VirusScan® B. McAfee Virex® C. Intego VirusBarrier® D. Norton AntiVirus®

55 Assessment 5. Which of the following is an anti-virus software recommended for both the Windows® and Mac® system? A. Norton AntiVirus® B. McAfee VirusScan® C. Intego VirusBarrier® D. McAfee Virex®

56 Computer Worms & Viruses Final Assessment

57 Assessment A computer __________ is a malicious, self-replicating independent program but a computer __________ is a malicious program requiring a host program to replicate. Bug; Disorder Disorder; Bug Virus; Worm Worm; Virus 2. There are two types of computer worms: a network worm and a __________. Server worm Host worm Trojan horse Morris worm

58 Assessment 3. A Trojan horse will generally attempt to gain access to which type of area on a computer? Administrative Memory or storage Network links Hard drive 4. Imprisonment time for a computer virus can range from 0 to __________. 10 years 15 years 20 years 25 years

59 Assessment 5. The first virus created in 1982 was the ______________ virus. Trojan horse Morris Burger Elk Cloner 6. A virus which, if anyone attempted to view an infected sector, would replace it with the clean, original version of the sector is known as a(n) __________. Boot sector virus Stealth virus Elk Cloner virus Morris virus

60 Assessment 7. A Trojan horse will possibly ___________.
Monitor keystrokes Monitor browsing activity Clog a network Both A and B 8. Computer files generally back themselves up automatically, so there is no need to frequently back up important files. True False

61 Assessment Viruses in s can find a user’s list then send itself in an attachment to all of the contacts on the list. True False Free anti-virus software on the Internet will protect a user’s computer as well as a paid program.

62 Resources Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. (2003, January). Retrieved October 9, 2008, from Laws and Texas Tech University System Policies Affecting Computer Use: Economics. (2008). Retrieved October 9, 2008, from About.Com: Hacker Marks 25th Anniversary of First Computer Virus. (2007, September 6). Retrieved October 9, 2008, from FOXNews.Com: Kutner, T. (2007). Tips from Tonna for your PC. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from Computer Lynx: Lehtinen, Rick, and G. T. Gangemi. Computer Security Basics, 2nd Edition. O'Reilly, 2006.

63 Resources Computer Viruses: Making the Time Fit the Crime. (1997). Retrieved October 9, 2008, from Ford Marrin Esposito Witmeyer & Gleser, L.L.P: Fosnock, C. (2005). Computer Worms: Past, Present, and Future. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from East Carolina University: Protecting your computer from viruses. (2007). Retrieved October 9, 2008, from University of Washington: The History of Computer Viruses. (2008). Retrieved October 9, 2008, from Virus Scan Software: Worms. (2007). Retrieved October 9, 2008, from Cybercrime:

64 Acknowledgements Production Coordinator: Technical Writer:
Jessica House Technical Writer: Jessica Odom Project Coordinator: Maggie Bigham Production Manager: Dusty Moore Graphic Designer: Ann Adams Executive Producers: Gordon Davis, Ph.D., Jeff Lansdell © MMXIV CEV Multimedia, Ltd.


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