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Kingdoms Dr. Childs Science Computer Lab Winter, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdoms Dr. Childs Science Computer Lab Winter, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdoms Dr. Childs Science Computer Lab Winter, 2004

2 Concepts Types of cells prokaryotes & eukaryotes Nutrition autotrophs & heterotrophs Number of cellsunicellular, colonial, & multicellular Reproductionsexual & asexual Motilitynon-motile & motile

3 Types of Cells Prokaryotes –Cells lack nuclear membranes –No membrane bound organelles as mitochondria or chloroplasts –Reproduce by binary fission –Includes: bacteria cyanobacteria (= blue-green algae) bacteria

4 Types of Cells Eukaryotes –Cells have nuclear membranes –Membrane bound organelles such as mitochondria or chloroplasts –Reproduce by mitosis –Includes: Protista Fungi, plants, and animals

5 Types of Nutrition Autotrophs –Organisms produce their own carbon compounds (sugars) –Energy from sunlight – photoautotrophs (includes plants and some bacteria) –Energy from chemicals – chemoautotrophs (bacteria from deep sea vents) Heterotrophs –Carbon compounds from other organisms –Fungi (include decomposers) –Protists and animals

6 Numbers of Cells Single celled organisms –Includes bacteria and some protists Colonial organisms –Some bacteria and algae –Single cells attached together –Earliest “tissues” Multicellular organisms –Specialized cells with different functions –Tissues and organs –Fungi, plants, animals Colonial organism

7 Reproduction Sexual reproduction –Exchange of genetic material (DNA) –Male (motile sperm) and female (stationery egg) –Pollen and seeds in plants Asexual reproduction –No exchange of DNA –Common in plants –Includes: grafting or rooting a branch in water cloning in animals

8 Motility Motile -Able to move -Includes animals hunting – move actively Non-motile –Not able to actively move –Most plants are rooted –Consider that plant may have seeds that move passively with animals (insects or birds) or with the wind –Some animals as sponges motile stages as larvae but are non-motile as adults Maple seed

9 Kingdoms Kingdoms are major groups of organisms with distinct characteristics and are the most inclusive of the taxonomic classifications. There are six generally accepted kingdoms: Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Note: In many texts Archaebacteria and Eubacteria have been grouped as Monera.

10 Relationships Among Kingdoms EubacteriaArchaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Earliest Life

11 Archaebacteria “Archae-” derived from “ancient” (as “archeology”) prokaryote, single cell photo- and chemosynthetic Reproduction by binary fission Exist in extreme environments: –Hot springs Yellowstone deep sea vents (chemosynthesis) –High saltGreat Salt Lake Dead Sea

12 Archaebacteria Hot springs Deep sea thermal vents Archaebacteria

13 Eubacteria “Eu-” derived from “true” Prokaryote, single cell; some colonial Heterotrophic, some photosynthetic Reproduction by binary fission Common in almost all environments –Soils & water –Foods –Intestine & skin Extremely diverse –Many beneficial (produce cheese) –Few cause disease (= “pathogens” )

14 Eubacteria Penicillin Bacteria Isolation & diagnosis Motile bacteria

15 Protista Eukaryotes Many unicellular; some colonial; few multicellular Asexual and sexual reproduction Cellular Reproduction by mitosis Some autotrophic, some heterotrophic, and some both Includes two major groups - protozoa and algae

16 Protista - Protozoa Mostly single cell Mostly heterotrophic, some autotrophic Many motile (cilia & flagella) Many free-living –Amoeba –Paramecium Includes medically important parasites –Malaria –African sleeping sickness Some symbiotic in termites Paramecium

17 Protista - Protozoa ParameciumAmoeba African Sleeping Sickness Malaria Termite symbiont

18 Protista - Algae Some unicellular, some colonial, some multicellular Mostly autotrophic (photosynthetic) - Important source of atmospheric oxygen Many attached to substrate; some motile Marine (salt water) and aquatic (fresh water) May be ancestors of plants Green algae

19 Protista - Algae Green algae “pond scum” Volox Colonial green algae Kelp Brown seaweed Green seaweed

20 Fungi Eukaryotes All heterotrophic Important decomposers Mostly multicellular with filamentous bodies Some unicellular ( yeasts) Asexual and sexual reproduction

21 Fungi Mushrooms Molds Yeast – Breads Ringworm – parasitic fungi Penicillum antibiotic Toxic interior mold

22 Plantae Eukaryotes Almost all autotrophic (photosynthetic) Multicellular; tissues (roots, stems, leaves) Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction (seeds & fruits) Mostly terrestrial; aquatic secondarily

23 Plantae Maple Pine Cactus Moss Radish Cypress tree Fern Bluebell

24 And, finally …

25 Animalia Eukaryotes Principally sexual reproduction Heterotrophic – mainly food hunters Multicellular - tissues and organs –Development of a head and nervous system Usually an digestive tract Planaria

26 Animalia Jellyfish Starfish Mammal Fish Insect Earthworm Hermit crab Sponge


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