Presentation on theme: "The Scientific Method aka: Scientific Inquiry. What is Science? The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events."— Presentation transcript:
What is Science? The goal of science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use those explanations to make useful predictions. 1. Science deals only with the natural world. 2. Scientists: collect and organize information in a careful, orderly way, looking for patterns and connections between events. 3. Scientists propose explanations that can be tested by examining evidence. 4. Science is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
How does the process of scientific investigation work? Science begins with an observation. This is the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.
How does the process of scientific investigation work? Scientists use a series of procedures called the scientific method (also referred to as scientific inquiry).
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD A series of steps used by scientists to solve a problem or answer a question (A series of steps used by scientists to solve a problem or answer a question.)
Steps of the Scientific Method 1.Establish the problem (Question) 2.Form a hypothesis 3.Test the hypothesis 4.Classify and analyze the data 5.Choose and verify the answer
(1) Establish the problem This process often begins with a problem or question about an observation.
Questions come from experiences that you have and from observations and inferences that you make.
Some questions cannot be investigated by science. Does my dog eat more food than my cat? Which makes a better pet – a cat or a dog?
(1) Establish the problem problem: a question that may be answered by the use of the scientific method The problem must: fall within the limitations of science be observable be measurable be repeatable
(1) Establish the problem Establishing the problem involves background research and limiting (defining) the problem.
Background research reading books and talking to qualified people about the topic or the problem
Limiting the problem means stating the problem carefully
(2) Form a hypothesis hypothesis: a possible solution; an educated guess (a prediction that can be tested)
(3) Test the Hypothesis A scientist will then gather evidence that will either support or disprove the hypothesis. This is done one of two ways: by conducting an experiment by conducting a survey
(3) Test the Hypothesis This information (evidence) is called data. data: pieces of information; the information gathered from making observations. (facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations) Data must be measured and recorded accurately.
What’s in an Experiment? Experimental variable Experimental group Control group
You wonder if using miracle grow on a plant really causes it to grow better. Example Experiment
You would set up a control group and an experimental group to perform the experiment and gather data. Example Experiment
Experimental Variable a condition that affects the result of an experiment (also known as independent variable or manipulated variable or experimental factor) A variable is something in an experiment that can change. Each experiment should have only one variable.
Experimental Group the group that is exposed to the experimental variable The experimental group shows the effect of the variable that is being tested.
Control Group the group, in an experiment, that is not exposed to the experimental variable A control is the standard to which the outcome of a test is compared. The control group serves as the comparison. It is the same as the experiment group, except that the one variable that is being tested is removed.
Survey a set of observations that are made to determine what is a common practice in a particular area
(4) Classify and analyze the data classify: arranging data so relationships can be seen
Classify often involves grouping or sorting the data (making a chart or table) which makes answers easier to find Graphs can reveal patterns or trends in data.
(4) Classify and analyze the data analyzing: determining whether a set of data supports a hypothesis
(5) Choose and Verify the Answer Once an answer is chosen, it must be verified.
How do you verify and answer? By gathering additional data through experiments or surveys. The more data that is found to support the answer, the more likely it is that the answer is valid.
Proving vs Verifying Proving and verifying are not the same. A scientist can never completely prove an answer. Why? Because it is based on observations done by humans who make mistakes.