Presentation on theme: "1 The Scientific Method What is the Scientific Method?"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Scientific Method What is the Scientific Method?
When scientists want to learn more about the world around them or need to solve a problem they use the scientific method.
The Scientific Method The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions. Design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to change in a predictable way. (cause and effect relationships)
Observation Using your five senses to perceive objects or events.
Step 1- Asking a Question Identify the Problem Based on observations; one or more questions are generated What is the problem that needs to be solved? Will a plant grow more if given fertilizer?
Step 2- What is Your Background Knowledge or Do Research What do you already know about the topic? If you know nothing about the topic then do research to learn more. 1. Internet 2. Library 3. Interviews 4. Etc. § There are different types of plants. They grow in different places. Some plants create edible fruits and vegetables. Some are poisonous. Plants need sun and water to grow.
Step 3- Form a Hypothesis A possible answer to our problem that we can use to develop an experiment. Must be testable. Many hypotheses must be revised and then retested.
The Hypothesis- Often written in the form of an “if-then” statement The if part has the independent variable, the part that will be changed to find an answer. The then part has the dependent variable, the what will happen because of that change. The because is your reason why you think this will happen. If a plant is given fertilizer then it will grow taller then a plant that is not given fertilizer because it will have more nutrients.
Independent variable: fertilizer If a plant is given fertilizer then it will grow taller Dependent variable: amount of growth (cm) then it will grow taller then a plant that is not given fertilizer Rationale: your reason why you think this will happen because it will have more nutrients.
Step 4- Design an Experiment Determine how you will test the problem to determine if the hypothesis you developed is valid ( correct) or needs to be revised (changed). We will grow two Bermuda Beach plants for one month. They will grow in the same location and be given the same amount of water, sunlight, soil, and growing temperature. One will be given 0.5 g of Miracle Grow with each watering while one will be given no Miracle Grow.
Step 5- Experimenting conduct a controlled experiment This means that only the independent variable is changed- everything else must remain the same or constant! Based on a comparison of a control group with an experimental group Control group- no change, no fertilizer Experimental group- has the change, 0.5 g of Miracle Grow with each watering
Measuring Quantitative data that can be measured in numbers Qualitative data information that isn’t numbers, it is statements DayNo Fertilizer (cm)0.5 g Miracle Grow Fertilizer (cm) 10.1 3 50.20.3 7 0.5 9 0.9 110.81.4 131.11.8 151.52.7 171.83.1 192.03.6 212.34.1 232.54.6 252.85.1 273.15.8 293.36.4
Organize the Data Create charts and graphs that accurately organize and demonstrate data gathered during the experiment. To learn the correct graph to create watch Bozeman Science Bozeman Science
Graph created using: Create a GraphCreate a Graph
Analyzing Data Collected and organized data must be analyzed Does the data we collected support the hypothesis? Is it inconclusive?
Step 6- Conclusion Conclusions: Drawn from data gathered from a study or experiment Support the hypothesis or do we need to start over again Re-testable, others should be able to do your experiment and get the same results
Hypothesis: If a plant is given fertilizer then it will grow taller then a plant that is not given fertilizer because it will have more nutrients. Control Group with no fertilizer after 30 days grew to be 3.3 cm tall Experimental Group with 0.5 g of Miracle Grow after 30 days grew to be 6.4 cm tall. Conclusion based on data is that plants given fertilizer do grow taller. the plants not given fertilizer were 3.3 cm after 30 days while those given 0.5 g of Miracle Grow were 6.4 cm tall after 30 days. Always use data from your experiment in your conclusion!!
Step 7- Communication Scientists must share the results of their studies with other scientists (peers) Publish in journals Present their findings at scientific meetings Scientists must be unbiased Should not tamper with their data Only publish & report tested & proven ideas
Communication Sharing of information is essential to scientific process Subject to examination and verification by other scientists Allows scientists to build on the work of others