Presentation on theme: "Seeking spices and converts, European nations lead successful voyages of exploration to the East. China limits foreign contact after a brief period of."— Presentation transcript:
Seeking spices and converts, European nations lead successful voyages of exploration to the East. China limits foreign contact after a brief period of acceptance.
Advances under the Ming and Qing dynasties left China self-contained and uninterested in European contact The first Ming emperor, Hongwu encouraged a return to Confucian moral standards Ming rulers would not allow outsiders to threaten the peace and prosperity they had brought to China following the end of Mongol rule
China Isolates Itself Only the government to conduct trade Chinese merchants smuggled cargoes of silk, pottery, and other valuable goods Confucian beliefs and agriculturally favorable taxes keep China from becoming highly industrialized.
The Chinese Ming Dynasty lasted from 1368 – 1644 The Great Wall was strengthened – the Imperial City in Beijing was built China extended its rule into Mongolia, Central Asia and briefly Vietnam Effective government, nationwide schools New crops introduced, factories and workshops thrived The Ming Dynasty established an era of greatness in China
The Voyages of Zheng He 1405 Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and eastern Africa to impress the world with the power and splendor of Ming China and to expand China’s tribute system Chinese scholars-officials see the voyages as wasteful Seventh and last voyage ended in 1433
The first voyage had nearly 28,000 men on 62 ships. (think about Columbus who was sailing west about this time with 3 little ships and a small crew) The largest ship was over 440 ft long (Columbus’s largest ship was 75 feet) When Emperor Yong Le died, the voyages stopped and the entire fleet burned. Chinese were no longer allowed to sail outside the Chinese waters.
Three potential reasons: 1. Conservative Confucianism 2. Lack of money in treasury 3. Focus on inland borders
after 200 years of rule ineffective rulers, corrupt officials, bad harvests, economic issues, and rebellion cause the fall of the Ming Dynasty the Manchu people from the northeast end of the Great Wall invaded they took the name Qing for their dynasty that lasted for more than 260 years
bring Taiwan, Chinese Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet into China forced Chinese men to wear their hair in a pigtail as a sign of submission to their rule uphold Confucian beliefs and social structures made the frontiers safe and restored China’s prosperity
Kanxi, 1661-1721 reduced government expenses offers intellectuals government positions keeps a relationship with Jesuits who keep him up to date with developments in Europe Kanxi’s grandson Qian-long rules China to its greatest size and prosperity continue policy of isolation and “Chinese rules“ for trade
King George III asks for a better trade arrangement representative Lord George McCartney refuses to kowtow the emperor Qian-long denies Britain’s request Why was the kowtow ritual important to the Chinese emperor?