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Chapter 10: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics

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1 Chapter 10: Sexual Reproduction and Genetics
10.1 Meiosis 10.2 Mendelian Genetics 10.3 Gene Linkage and Polyploidy

2 10.1 Meiosis Objectives Explain the reduction in chromosome number that occurs during meiosis Recognize and summarize the stages of meiosis Analyze the importance of meiosis in providing genetic variation

3 10.1 Meiosis Review Vocabulary New Vocabulary
Chromosome – cellular structure that contains DNA New Vocabulary Gene Homologous chromosome Gamete Haploid Fertilization Diploid Meiosis Crossing over

4 Chromosomes and Chromosome Number
Characteristics are passed on to offspring by parents Each characteristic is called a trait Instructions for each trait are located on chromosomes found in the nucleus of cells The DNA on chromosomes is arranged in segments called genes that control the production of proteins Each chromosome consists of approximately 1500 genes, each gene playing an important role in determining the characteristics and functions of the cell.

5 Chromosomes and Chromosome Number
Human body cells have 46 chromosomes Each parent contributes 23 chromosomes, resulting in 23 pairs of chromosomes Homologous chromosomes – one of two paired chromosomes, one from each parent

6 Chromosomes and Chromosome Number
Homologous chromosomes Same length Same centromere position Carry genes that control the same inherited traits

7 Haploid and Diploid Cells
An organism produces gametes to maintain the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation Gametes are sex cells that have half the number of chromosomes Human gametes contain 23 chromosomes

8 Haploid and Diploid Cells
The symbol n represents the number of chromosomes in a gamete A cell with n chromosomes is called a haploid cell (single) The process by which one haploid gamete combines with another haploid gamete is called fertilization As a result of fertilization, the cell will contain a total of 2n chromosomes A cell that contains 2n chromosomes is called a diploid cell (double)

9 Meiosis I The sexual life cycle in animals involves meiosis, which is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes (reduction division) Meiosis produces gametes When gametes combine in fertilization, the number of chromosomes is restored

10 Meiosis I Stages of Meiosis I
Reduces the chromosome number by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes Involves two consecutive cell divisions called meiosis I and meiosis II

11 Meiosis I Interphase Chromosomes replicate Chromatin condenses

12 Meiosis I Prophase I Synapsis occurs – the physical binding of homologous chromosomes Each chromosome consists of two chromatids The nuclear envelope breaks down Spindles form

13 Meiosis I Prophase I Crossing over produces exchange of genetic material Crossing over – chromosomal segments are exchanged between a pair of homologous chromosomes

14 Meiosis I Metaphase I Chromosome centromeres attach to spindle fibers
Homologous chromosomes line up at the equator

15 Meiosis I Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell

16 Meiosis I Telophase I The spindles break down
Chromosomes uncoil and form two nuclei The cell divides

17 Meiosis II Prophase II A second set of phases begins as the spindle apparatus forms and the chromosomes condense

18 Meiosis II Metaphase II
A haploid number of chromosomes line up at the equator

19 Meiosis II Anaphase II The sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere by spindle fibers and move toward the opposite poles of the cell

20 Meiosis II Telophase II
The chromosomes reach the poles, and the nuclear membrane and nuclei reform

21 Meiosis II Cytokinesis results in four haploid cells, each with n number of chromosomes

22 The Importance of Meiosis
Meiosis consists of two sets of divisions Produces four haploid daughter cells that are not identical Results in genetic variation

23 Mitosis v. Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis One division occurs
DNA replication occurs during interphase Synapsis of homologous chromosomes does not occur Two identical cells are formed per cell cycle Mitosis occurs only in body cells Mitosis is involved in growth and repair See Biology Concepts 32: Mitosis v. Meiosis Meiosis Two sets of divisions occur during meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II DNA replication occurs once before meiosis I Synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs during prophase I Four haploid cells (n) are formed per cell cycle The daughter cells are not genetically identical because of crossing over Meiosis occurs in reproductive cells Meiosis is involved in the production of gametes and providing genetic variation in organisms

24 Meiosis Provides Variation
Depending on how the chromosomes line up at the equator, four gametes with four different combinations of chromosomes can result. Genetic variation also is produced during crossing over and during fertilization, when gametes randomly combine

25 Sexual Reproduction v. Asexual Reproduction
The organism inherits all of its chromosomes from a single parent The new individual is genetically identical to its parent Example - Bacteria Sexual Reproduction Beneficial genes multiply faster over time Example – Humans Most protists reproduce both asexually and sexually, depending on environmental conditions Most plants and many of the more simple animals can reproduce both asexually and sexually

26 10.2 Mendelian Genetics Objectives
Explain the significaance of Mendel’s experiments to the study of genetics Summarize the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment Predict the possible offspring from a cross using a Punnett Square

27 10.2 Mendelian Genetics Review Vocabulary New Vocabulary
Segregation – the separation of allelic genes that typically occurs during meiosis New Vocabulary Genetics Allele Dominant Recessive Homozygous Heterozygous Genotype Phenotype Lae of segregation Hybrid Law of independent assortment

28 How Genetics Began In 1866, Gregor Mendel, an Australian monk and a plant breeder, published his findings on the method and the mathematics of inheritance in garden pea plants Mendel is known as the father of genetics Genetics is the science of heredity

29 How Genetics Began The passing of traits to the next generation is called inheritance, or heredity Mendel chose pea plants for his study Easy to grow Many are true breeding - they consistently produce offspring with only one form of a trait Usually reproduce by self-fertilization - when a male gamete within a flower combines with a female gamete in the same flower Mendel performed cross-pollination by transferring a male gamete from the flower of one pea plant to the female reproductive organ in another pea plant Mendel followed various traits in the pea plants he bred

30 The Inheritance of Traits
The parent generation is also known as the P generation The offspring of this P cross are called the first filial (F1) generation The second filial (F2) generation is the offspring from the F1 cross

31 The Inheritance of Traits
Mendel studied seven different traits Seed or pea color Flower color Seed pod color Seed shape or texture Seed pod shape Stem length Flower position F1 generation plants from these crosses showed a 3:1 ratio

32 Genes in Pairs Mendel concluded from his studies that there must be two forms of a trait, controlled by a factor, which is now called an allele An allele is an alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation Dominant - form of the trait that appeared in the F1 generation Recessive – form of the trait that was masked in the F1 generation

33 Dominance Dominant alleles is represented by a capital letter. Yellow-seed forms are a dominant trait (Y) Recessive alleles are represented by a lowercase letter. Green-seed forms are a recessive trait (y)

34 Dominance An organism with two of the same alleles for a particular trait is homozygous YY – yellow-seed plants yy - green-seed plants An organism with two different alleles for a particular trait is heterozygous Yy – dominant allele is observed, therefore, yellow-seed plants

35 Genotype and Phenotype
Genotype – genetic make-up or allelles present YY, yy, or Yy Phenotype – physical or observable characteristic Yellow-seed or green-seed

36 Mendel’s Law of Segregation
Two allelles of each trait separate during meiosis During fertilization, two alleles for that trait unite Heterozygous organisms are called hybrids

37 Monohybrid Cross A cross that involves hybrids for a single trait is called a monohybrid cross Three possible genotypes YY, Yy and yy Genotype ratio is 1:2:1 Phenotype ratio is 3:1 – yellow seeds to green seeds

38 Dihybrid Cross The simultaneous inheritance of two or more traits in the same plant is a dihybrid cross Dihybrids are heterozygous for both traits

39 Law of independent Assortment
Random distribution of alleles occurs during gamete formation Genes on separate chromosomes sort independently during meiosis Each allele combination is equally likely to occur

40 Punnett Square-Monohybrid Cross
A tool used to predicts the possible offspring of a cross between two known genotypes

41 Punnett Square- Dihybrid Cross
Four types of alleles from the male gametes and four types of alleles from the female gametes can be produced The resulting phenotypic ratio is 9:3:3:1

42 10.3 Gene Linkage and Polyploidy
Objectives Summarize how the process of meiosis produces genetic recombination Explain how gene linkage can be used to create chromosome maps Analyze why polyploidy is important to the field of agriculture

43 10.3 Gene Linkage and Polyploidy
Review Vocabulary Protein – large, complex polymer essential to all life that provides structure for tissues and organs and helps carry out cell metabolism New Vocabulary Genetic recombination polyploidy

44 Genetic Recombination
The new combination of genes produced by crossing over and independent assortment Combinations of genes due to independent assortment can be calculated using the formula 2n, where n is the number of chromosome pairs In humans, the possible number of combinations after fertilization would be 223 x 223, or more than 70 trillion. This number does not include the amount of genetic recombination produced by crossing over

45 Gene Linkage The linkage of genes on a chromosome results in an exception to Mendel’s law of independent assortment because linked genes usually do not segregate independently Yet linked genes do not always travel together during meiosis due to crossing over

46 Chromosome Maps A drawing that shows the sequence of genes on a chromosome and can be created by using cross-over data Chromosome map percentages are not actual chromosome distances, but they represent relative positions of the genes Genes that are further apart would have a greater frequency of crossing over.

47 Polyploidy The occurrence of one or more extra sets of all chromosomes in an organism is polyploidy A triploid organism, for instance, would be designated 3n, which means that it has three complete sets of chromosomes In humans, polyploidy is always lethal In plants, polyploidy is associated with increased vigor and size

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