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Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Part 1

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1 Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Part 1

2 Ecosystem: interactions among populations in a community
Consists of: A community of organisms The soil, water, and weather Energy

3 Biome - a major ecosystem that shares the same type of climate and has similar life forms.
Salt water Freshwater Estuary (mix of salt and fresh water) Terrestrial (dry land)

4 Tundra (Alpine and Arctic)
Permafrost - permanently frozen ground Plants - short roots; fast growing; perennials. Animals have thick fur / body fat / coloration.

5 Taiga / Coniferous Forest
Conifers - cone-bearing trees / bending branches / needles as leaves. Animals also have thick fur / body fat.

6 Temperate / Deciduous Forest
Broad-leaved trees lose their leaves yearly. Some birds migrate.

7 Tropical Rain Forest Arboreal - tree-dwelling animals Trees / Plants:
1. Canopy Understory Ground

8 Desert Most desert animals are nocturnal.
Estivation - sleeping during hot days. Plants have waxy leaves / spines.

9 Grasslands (Savanna and Temperate) What are Steppes?
Most animals have good vision and speed. Plants have underground stems / survive fires.

10 Aquatic Biomes Freshwater – Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands.
Marine – Oceans, coral reefs, estuaries.

11 CLIMATOGRAM - Measures two things:
Average Temperature Average Precipitation


13 Chapters 3-4 Communities and Biomes / Population Part 2

14 Succession: changes over time
Primary succession – gradual growth of an ecosystem over a long period of time. Example: Hawaii. Rock -> Lichen -> moss -> grass -> shrub -> tree -> vines

15 Succession: changes over time
Pioneer species – first species in an area

16 Succession: changes over time
Climax community – shows little or no change over time Secondary succession (previously supported vegetation) – sequence of life after natural disasters (examples: Forest fires, glaciers, avalanches, flood, hurricane, tsunami, tornadoes, volcanic eruption). 1988 forest fire in Yellowstone Nat’l Park


18 Population Dynamics Exponential Growth - as a population gets larger, it also grows faster. Carrying capacity - the maximum number of organisms that an environment can support.

19 Limiting factors: Factors that affect an organism’s ability to survive.
Density dependent factors: Disease Competition Parasites Food & water Space

20 Density independent factors (abiotic factors):
Temperature Storms Floods Drought Habitat disruption (logging, burning, draining swamps, moving in exotic species)

21 Demography - human population growth
Immigration - moving in Emigration - moving out Growth rate Natality - birth rate Fatality - death rate

22 The End!

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