Presentation on theme: "I.What is Science? A.Thinking Like a Scientist 1.Scientists use the following skills to learn more about the world: Observing Inferring Predicting Classifying."— Presentation transcript:
I.What is Science? A.Thinking Like a Scientist 1.Scientists use the following skills to learn more about the world: Observing Inferring Predicting Classifying Making Models
2. Successful scientists possess certain important attitudes, or habits of mind, including: Curiosity Honesty Open-mindedness Skepticism Creativity
B.Scientific Inquiry – Designing and Experiment 1. Scientific Inquiry refers to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather. a.Usually begins with a problem or questions about an observation. b. Scientific inquiry can not answer questions about personal tastes or judgments
2.In science, a hypothesis must be testable a.A hypothesis is not a fact. b.A hypothesis is only one way to explain a group of observations. c.Must propose an answer or solution to the problem and written in an IF/Then statement (or I predict that…) d.Does not have to be correct!
3. Researchers must be able to carryout investigations that will either support or disprove the hypothesis by running a CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT. a.Variables 1.The manipulated variable (independent variable) is the variable that is purposely changed during and experiment. (Comes after the If in a hypothesis) 2. The variable that may change in response to the manipulated variable is the dependent variable (responding variable). (Comes after the then in a hypothesis; data you are collecting during the hypothesis – the outcome)
3. All other variables in the experiment must remain constant or the same so that the scientist knows that it’s the independent variable that is affecting the results. 4. By controlling variables, scientists can eliminate the effects of the other variables as factors in their results.
b. Collecting and Interpreting Data 1.Data are the facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations. 2.A data table provides you with an organized way to collect and record your observations 3.Graphs are useful tools that can help you interpret data and draw conclusions by revealing patterns or trends in the data.
c. Drawing Conclusions 1. A conclusion is a decision about how you interpret what you have learned during your experiment. 2.In drawing your conclusion, you should state whether the data supports or disproves your hypothesis.
C. Scientific Theories and Laws 1. A scientific theory is a well-tested scientific concept that explains a wide range of observations. a. It has withstood repeated tests, but can be discarded or changed if tests fail to support it. b. Scientists study the natural world with the goal of forming theories to explain their observations. 2. A scientific law describes an observed pattern in nature, but does not provide an explanation for it.