2 “the leavings, the shards, the remnants of people who once lived and don't live any more." A definition of a Primary Source
3 What is going on in this photo? What questions does it raise? This is a photo of a family funeral in North Dakota in the 1890s. I talk about what I was curious about when I look at this photo. First question that occurs to me – Who is in the casket? How did that child die? Epidemic? Starvation? Wolves? Then, who is in this family? Why so many kids? How isolated is the family?What is going on in this photo? What questions does it raise?
4 Why do we use primary sources in history? No bias, no viewpointOnly your interpretationCan give additional informationMaterialsTexturesPrinting methodsTechnologies
5 What is a Primary Source? An informational source from the time of the eventAutobiographiesDiariesDocumentsEyewitness accountsFilm footageLawsLettersNewspaper articlesNovelsObjects from the timeOral historiesPhotographsPoems, art, musicSpeeches
6 Does a Primary Source have to be the original material? No – it can be in another form, but it can’t be edited or interpreted in any way.For example,Patrick Henry’s “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!” speech can be found in 100 Key Documents in American History
7 Why Use Primary Sources in the Classroom? Expose Students to Multiple PerspectivesDevelop knowledge, skills,and analytical abilitiesBring lessons to lifeMotivate studentsMore interesting for you and your students
8 Questions to ask yourself when looking at Primary Sources Who wrote this?How do they know the information they are telling me?When did they write it?Why did they write it?Who did they write it for?
9 What are Secondary Sources? An informational source that analyzes the event. These sources often use several primary sources to compile the information.BiographiesEncyclopediasHistory booksTextbooks
10 Are Secondary Sources useful for Lessons? Yes – They provide the necessary background or context to be able to interpret Primary SourcesFor example,World Book 2005 or your Social Studies textbook can provide background information about the events leading up to Revolutionary War.
11 Is it possible for a Secondary Source to be completely objective? Beware of Bias!Is it possible for a Secondary Source to be completely objective?
12 Wikipedia’s entry on President Bush The following passage describes his National Guard service:In May 1968, at the height of the Vietnam War, he entered the Texas Air National Guard. He trained in the guard for two years, where he was among the last to learn to fly the F-102, a plane not used in Vietnam and due to be retired.While this could be true, why would it be important to know that he was “among the last to learn to fly the F-102”? Is this a commentary on President Bush flying an outdated plane? Is it an unbiased point of view?
13 Encarta’s entry on President Bush (note that Encarta lets people edit its pages but with editor approval)Upon completing college, [Bush] became eligible for the military draft. To meet his service obligation, Bush enlisted in the Texas Air National Guard in He told the admitting officer that he wanted to become a pilot like his father, who was a highly decorated Navy flier in World War II. He did his basic training at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas, and entered a pilot-training program at Moody Air Force Base Georgia. He received favorable reports from his superiors, attained the rank of second lieutenant, and was certified to fly the F-102 jet fighter during training missions in the South and along the Gulf Coast.Encarta doesn’t mention that President Bush being one of the last to fly the F-102, and instead notes patriotically how President Bush wanted to fly a jet like his father.
14 Where to Find Primary Sources Online Library of Congress American Memory Collection
15 Where to Find Primary Sources Online National Archives and Records Administration
16 Where to Find Primary Sources Online Eyewitness: History Through the Lives of Those Who Lived It
17 Where to Find Primary Sources Online Primary Sources on the Web
18 Where to Find Primary Sources Online Early America
19 Where to Find Primary Sources Online History and Politics Out Loud
20 Where to Find Primary Sources Online Vincent Voice Library
21 Where to Find Primary Sources Online History Channel Speech Archive
22 Where to Find Primary Sources Online New York Public LibraryDigital Library Collection
23 Where to Find Primary Sources Online Newspaper Archive
24 Where to Find Primary Sources Offline Teacher Created Materials Primary Sources Kits
25 Where to Find Primary Sources Offline Metropolitan Museum of ArtResources for Educators
26 Where to Find Primary Sources Offline Antiques Fairs and DealersPhotographic ReproductionsPalmer Wirfs Antiques and Collectibles Fairs
28 Copyright and Primary Sources Educational Use AllowedCheck Copyright on Websites
29 How to Use Primary Sources in the Classroom Analyzing Documents and PhotosTime to observePut yourself in the timeCover part of photoAsk questionsNotice details
30 How to Use Primary Sources in the Classroom Discussion QuestionsHigher Order Thinking Skills
31 Sample Questions Who was the author? What might the purpose of this document have been?If you were at the scene, what might you report?Does this picture or document accurately portray these people?Where might this document or photo be found today?