Introduction to The Cold War What is a Cold War? Who fights in a Cold War? How do you fight a Cold War?
What? and Who? Battle of ideology Battle of culture Battle of values Democratic vs. Totalitarian Western vs. Eastern, American vs. Soviet Capitalist vs. Socialist
Weapons of a Cold War Foreign Policy: Strategy –Truman Doctrine Economic Aid: Loans, Investments –Marshall Plan Alliances: Security Pacts, Organizations –NATO, Warsaw Pact Technology: Military Weapons –Nuclear Weapons, Satellites Propaganda: Radio, TV, News Covert Warfare: Spies, Coups, Sabotage
US Cold War Foreign Policy Advisory Organizations Architects of Cold War Foreign Policy “On the Sources of Soviet Conduct” Containment The Truman Doctrine
Advisory Organizations National Security Council – NSC - Comprised of Secretaries of Military branches, and Department of State & Defense Department of Defense (1947) -- coordinates military & diplomatic activities. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) -- coordinates intelligence gathering bodies & conducts covert operations.
Architects -- George Marshall Appointed Secretary of State in 1947. Was Army Chief of Staff during WWII. Driving force behind the plan for the economic recovery of Europe.
Architects -- Dean Acheson Appointed Undersecretary of State by Marshall. Would eventually succeed Marshall as Secretary of State.
Architects -- George Kennan Kennan was a career foreign service officer who had become an expert on the Soviet Union. Deputy to George Marshall Wrote “On the Sources of Soviet Conduct,” under the pen-name “X” which became the basis of the US “Containment” strategy.
“On the Sources of Soviet Conduct” Soviet paranoia of foreign hostility Need for unlimited domestic authority Promotion of revolutions abroad to justify Communist control of Soviet Union Therefore, US Policy must be that of “long- term, patient, but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansion.”
The “Truman Doctrine” “Containments” first test Britain unable to support Greece & Turkey USSR demands land concessions from Turkey US to fill British role Truman requests $400 million & military advisors towards defeating communist insurgents.
Containment -- CHINA Nationalist Chinese, led by Chiang Kai- shek at war with Communist Chinese, led by Mao Zedong. US supports Chiang Chiang’s corruption devastates economy
Containment -- CHINA People rally behind Mao, who promises an end to inflation Soviets back Mao Chiang forced to island of Taiwan in 1949 People’s Republic of China is established
Containment -- CHINA US Response: 1) Refused to recognize the People’s Republic 2) Signed peace treaty with Japan, granting rights for US military bases in Japan
Summary A Cold War is a battle of ideologies, values, and cultures fought with non-military weapons designed to undermine the enemy’s claims of legitimacy. US Cold War foreign policy is guided by the “Truman Doctrine” of containment Containment faced its first test in Greece, Turkey, and the Communist revolution in China
Quiz: 1.The cold war was a battle of what three areas? Ideology, culture, values 2.Name one of the weapons of the cold war Foreign Policy, Economic Aid, Alliances, Technology, Propaganda, Covert Warfare 3.Name one of the advisory organizations NSC, Department of Defense, CIA 4.What was the name given to the foreign policy strategy toward communism? Containment 5.What the doctrine that was used first to enforce this policy? Truman Doctrine