How is Earth a System? Earth is a system made up of different parts Two of these parts are: atmosphere- envelope of gases that surrounds the planet hydrosphere- made up of all the water on Earth the atmosphere and hydrosphere are constantly interacting weather is the condition of the Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place as interactions between parts of the Earth system change, so does the weather
BrainPOP: Heat How is Temperature Measured? All substances are made up of tiny particles (atoms and molecules) that are constantly moving. Temperature measures the average energy of motion of the particles The faster the particles move, the more energy they have – Thermal energy measures the total energy of motion in the particles of a substance.
Measuring temperature Air temperature is usually measured with a thermometer. A thermometer is a device that measures temperature. Temperature is measured in units called degrees. There are twoTemperature scales : 1.) the Celsius scale 2.) the Fahrenheit scale.
Heat is thermal energy that is transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one heat is transferred in 3 ways: convection conduction and radiation How is Heat Transfered?
convection- The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid.
conduction- The transfer of heat between two substances that are in direct contact When a fast moving molecule bumps into a slower moving molecule, the faster one transfers some of its energy to the slower one. The closer together the molecules are in a substance, the better they conduct heat w orks best in-- some solids, such as metals but not as well-- in liquids and gases
radiation- The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves Most of the heat that you feel from the sun travels to you as infrared radiation, which you cannot see but can feel.
Heating the Troposphere The troposphere is the lowest layer in Earth’s atmosphere. Radiation, conduction, and convection work together to heat the troposphere. The upward movement of warm air and the downward movement of cool air form convection currents. Heat is transferred mostly by convection within the troposphere. Study Jams: Heat