# The Scientific Method. Many scientists use a process known as the scientific method to solve a science experiment. This is a five-step process with the.

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The Scientific Method

Many scientists use a process known as the scientific method to solve a science experiment. This is a five-step process with the same general pattern

Steps of the Scientific Method Problem/Question 1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.

Asking a question - ???? Purpose — –Any scientific experiment begins with a question. –What am I looking for as I do this experiment? –This scientific question must be one that can be answered by gathering information.

Question (purpose)????? Good examples: What is the relationship between time, speed and distance? How does temperature affect melting? How can you determine the diet of an owl? Not-so-good examples: How far can you walk in five seconds at a normal pace, a slow pace, and a regular place? If you place an ice cube in a warm place and a cool place, which one will melt faster? What happens when you dissect owl pellets?

Scientific Method ? Question Have a purpose Make experimen

Steps of the Scientific Method Research 2. Research: Do as much research on your topic of interest so that you know how to form hypothesis.

Scientific Method ? Question Have a purpose Make experimen Research Get as much info as you can

Steps of the Scientific Method Formulate a Hypothesis 3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question. Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth will increase.

Hypothesis 3. Developing a hypothesis You have a question that needs an answer. It is time for you, as a scientist, to make a guess or prediction as to the outcome of the experiment. Your prediction is really an "educated guess" that is based on your past experience and knowledge of the subject. A properly worded hypothesis begins with if and has a then in the middle of the statement. The hypothesis serves as an outline of the experiment you will be performing.

Hypothesis- guess Good examples: If you walk at various speeds, then the distance and time will be affected. If you expose a substance to different temperatures, then the melting rates will vary. If you examine the contents of an owl pellet, then you will be able to determine its feeding priorities. Not-so-good examples: If you walk fast for 5 seconds and slower for five seconds, then you will walk the five meters at different times and distances. Ice cubes in the sun will melt faster because they are not in a cool place. Owl pellets show you all the stuff inside the owl.

Hypothesis: A guess about the relationship between variables. The statement that can be tested. If this _______________ then, __________.

Scientific Method ? Question Have a purpose Make experimen Research Get as much info as you can Educated guess hypothesis

Steps of the Scientific Method Experiment 4. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure. Include a detailed materials list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).

Experiment 4. Procedure for the experiment (test the hypothesis)--The procedure is the step-by-step plan you follow in order to complete the experiment.

Experiment The procedure is like a recipe. If your procedure is written properly, everyone else who follows those directions will make the same observations or measurements as you did.

Experiment A good example will list step by step what you did. It's like giving someone directions to your house. You must include the specific items necessary to get there.

Experiment A not-so-good example will omit details that are necessary. If the person following your directions ends up somewhere else, your procedure is not clear.

Scientific Method ? Question Have a purpose Make experimen Research Get as much info as you can Educated guess hypothesis Step by step experiment

Steps of the Scientific Method Collect and Analyze Results 5. Collect and Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed. Confirm the results by retesting. Include tables, graphs, and photographs.

Analysis 5. Collecting and interpreting data The observations and measurements you take during the actual experiment are called data. You will need to determine beforehand how you will be collecting this data. The data can be shown as a chart or graph, as a model, or as a diagram. When the experiment has been completed, you will need to analyze your data to answer the question (step 1) and to support or disprove your hypothesis (step 2).

Analysis A good example will have accurate graphs that are labeled; drawings will have detail and labels; observations will be written out clearly and with detail. A not-so-good example will contain unlabeled drawings or incomplete charts. There will be vague or no notes about observations. It will contain inaccurate measurements or measurements that are not labeled.

Scientific Method ? Question Have a purpose Make experimen Research Get as much info as you can Educated guess hypothesis Step by step experiment analysis Look at Data

Steps of the Scientific Method Conclusion 6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis. Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.

Conclusion 6. Drawing a conclusion A conclusion is a statement that summarizes what you have learned from doing this experiment. You will need to use the data collected during the experiment in order to prove or disprove your hypothesis. Repeat the work if necessary.

Conclusion A good example will answer the question or the problem asked in step 1. It will explain whether or not the hypothesis stated was correct. It will refer to the data collected to support the answer. A not-so-good example will simply state that the hypothesis was right or wrong. It would contain very little information to support why it was right or wrong. It would not refer to the data collected.

Scientific Method ? Question Have a purpose Make experimen Research Get as much info as you can Educated guess hypothesis Step by step experiment analysis Look at Data Conclusion

Steps of the Scientific Method Communicate the Results 7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience. Expect questions from the audience.

Retest Perform the experiment again What would I change?

Outline 1. Purpose What is it I want to know or show? 2. Research/Hypothesis Find out as much as possible about your topic Make an educated guess about what you think will happen 3. Experiment Create an experiment to test Step by step

Outline continued 4. Analyze Data Record what happens during experiment Is data reliable? Support hypothesis? 5. Conclusion Was your hypothesis correct? Summarize the important parts of experiment and the results

Experimental Research Investigations that involve variables –Controlled Variables (constants): –Dependent Variable: –Independent Variable:

Control Group The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested. All experiments should have a control group.

Constants The constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.

Controlled Variables (constants): Variables that could change, but are not allowed to; also called constants. Factors that stays the same through all phases of an experiment.

Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables?

Independent Variable The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter. John is going to use 25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his experiment.

Independent Variable: The variable that is changed or tested by the scientist; the thing that is different between experimental groups. Single factor in an experiment that the experimenter changes.

Dependent Variable The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable. In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread.

Dependent Variable: In an experimental investigation, what is observed and measured; the data. Factors that will be measured in an experiment.

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