Presentation on theme: "Section B 2 8 UNIT The right to live - A dog’s account To master the reading skill To understand the text To practice the phrases and patterns To learn."— Presentation transcript:
Section B 2 8 UNIT The right to live - A dog’s account To master the reading skill To understand the text To practice the phrases and patterns To learn about letter writing UNIT
Warming-up Reading skills Text study Comparative study Contents Unit project Section B
1.Can you describe what happened in the video clip? 2.What does you learn from the dog? Watch a video clip and answer the following questions :
Tips 1. Can you describe what happened in the video clip? A dog named Hachi wanted to accompany Parker, his master, to go to work but was refused. After Parker went away, he dug a hole with his paws and came out from beneath the fence. When Hachi appeared at the station and tried to find where his master was, it surprised Parker greatly. He persuaded Hachi to go home but in vain. Finally Parker had to walk Hachi home.
This video clip is taken from Hachi, a touching movie adapted from a true story. From it, we can learn the following qualities: 1.Faithfulness. Be loyal and faithful to our friends. 2.Companionship. Be a close companion of our family members. 3.Love. Cherish love and learn to love back. 2. What do you learn from the dog? Tips
An animal shelter is a place that houses homeless, lost, or abandoned animals; primarily a large variety of dogs and cats. The goal of the animal shelter is to provide a safe and caring environment until the animal is either reclaimed by its owner, placed in a new home, or placed with another organization for adoption. Tips What is animal shelter? Background Information
Every author has a purpose for writing. Reading effectively requires recognizing the author’s purpose, which may not always be as easy as it sounds. Usually there are three common purposes of writing: To inform – to provide readers with information about a topic; To persuade – to convince readers to believe a certain viewpoint or a certain course of action; To entertain – to amuse readers in some way. Identifying the writer’s purpose
There are some clues that effective readers can get to help them identify what kind of writing they’re dealing with: 1. Informative writing features facts and evidence, not opinions or value judgments. It often contains dates, statistics or other figures, or quotes from experts or witnesses. Depending on the subject, the language may include technical terms, but the vocabulary and sentence structures are often quite simple. Identifying the writer’s purpose
2. Persuasive writing features emotional appeals: opinions and arguments (may be presented as if they were facts, so be careful); rhetorical questions (a question without the expectation of a reply); evaluating language (good / bad, right /wrong, horrifying / wonderful, etc.). 3. Texts written mainly to entertain can, of course, be varied, but they often use informal language, simple sentence structure, dialog, or figurative speech. Identifying the writer’s purpose
Scan Text B for clues that help you identify the author’s aim. Use the questions below to guide your scanning, and then decide if the text is informative, persuasive, entertaining, or if the author has more than one aim. Identifying the writer’s purpose
What does the title tell you about the content of the text? Are there any dialogs or figurative speeches in the text? What quotes do you read in the text? Are they from experts, witnesses, or someone else? How would you describe the language of this article? Is it formal or informal? Evaluating? Judgmental or emotional? Questions Identifying the writer’s purpose Is this article informative, persuasive or entertaining? Explain.
1.What does the title tell you about the content of the text? 2.According to the dog, why did the rhythm of life change? (Para.3) 3.As the children grew, when did they like to do? (Para. 5) 4.What is the “right decision” made for the dog after the master had a new career opportunity? (Paras. 7-8) 5.At the animal shelter, how did the two ladies treat the dog? How did the dog feel? (Para. 10) 6.At the end of the day, what did the dog do? How do you understand “at the end of the day”? (Para. 11) 7.Can you identify the author’s major purpose of writing after scanning the text? How to achieve his purpose?
From the title of the reading, we can see that this article is about a dog’s typical life experience. We can guess further that a dog’s perspective is personified, which means the dog will tell its own story. 1. What does the title tell you about the content of the text? Tips
2. According to the dog, why did the rhythm of life change? (Para.3) Tips His master gradually lagged behind, spending more time at work and searching for a human mate.
原句： I waited patiently, comforted you through heartbreaks and disappointments, never scolded your bad decisions, and leaped happily when you came home or fell in love. （ Para. 3, L2 ） 解释 : I waited with patience, and comforted you when you were heart-broken and disappointed. I never criticized your bad decisions, and only jumped happily when you went home or fell in love. 译文： 我耐心地等待着，在你伤心和失望时给予安慰，我从 来不指责你做出的糟糕决定；当你回家或恋爱时，我 为你欢呼雀跃。
3. As the children grew, when did they like to do? (Para.5) Tips They buried their hands up to their wrists in the dog’s fur and pulled themselves up on unsteady legs, investigating her ears and squeezing her muscles.
The family would move to another city and live in an apartment that didn’t allow pets, so the dog was sent to the animal shelter. 4. What is the “right decision” made for the dog after the master had a new career opportunity? (Paras.7-8) Tips
原句： On the eve of your departure, there was no internal debate – the jury had already decided. (Para. 7, L3) 解释 : On the day before your departure, there was no disagreement over how to handle me, because a hasty decision was made but excluding my opinion from decision-making process. 译文： 你们离开的前一天，家里没有内部的辩论 —— 陪审团已经做出决定。
5. At the animal shelter, how did the two ladies treat the dog? How did the dog feel? (Para.10) Tips The two ladies were as attentive as they were expected. But the dog had lost her appetite and was experiencing a famine of hope.
原句： They fed us, but I had lost my appetite and was experiencing a famine of hope. (Para. 10, L2) 解释 : They gave us food to eat, but I lost my appetite a few days ago and don’t feel like eating anything because I am hopelessly depressed. 译文： 她们给我们喂吃的，但我几天前就失去了胃口， 现正经历着希望的饥荒。
The dog heard a staff’s footsteps at the end of the day, and she followed her quietly along the corridor to a separate room. Here “the end of the day” might be interpreted as either the end of a regular day or the end of the dog’s life. 6. At the end of the day, what did the dog do? How do you understand “at the end of the day”? (Para.11) Tips
原句： As I felt the cool injection coursing through my body, I lay down sleepily, looked into her kind eyes and emitted a low cry, “How could you?” (Para. 11, L5) 解释 : When I felt the cool injection running through my body, I lay down sleepily, stared at her kind eyes and whispered, “How could you do that to me?” 译文： 当我觉得冰凉的注射剂在体内流动，我昏昏 沉沉地躺了下来，看着她那双善良的眼睛， 喃喃自语： “ 你怎么能这样？ ”
7. Can you identify the author’s major purpose of writing after scanning the text? How to achieve his purpose? Tips The major purpose of the text is to persuade. Its main purpose is to convince people to treat animals kindly. However, it doesn’t directly say that; instead, it tries to achieve its main purpose through first amusing readers (Paras.1-6) and then by shocking them emotionally (Paras.11-12). To accomplish this, it contains informal language, simple sentence structure, conversational style, and figurative speech.
provided with rhythm of life leaped came along defendwith On the eve of
shelter which __________ hell. There, I experienced _______________ because it was difficult to _________ an old dog. Eventually I ___________ a corner and waited for my destiny. When one lady from the animal shelter ____ the needle ____ my vein, I felt the cool injection _______________ my body. Perhaps she _______________ my sad eyes, because she promised I would ______ in a better place with love and light. smelled of retreated to discharge a famine of hope coursing through slidinto took the cue from waken
Practical Phrases Specific Meanings Specific Meanings 1. roll sb/sth. over ( 使 ) 翻身 2. provide sb. with sth. 提供供应；供给 3. lag behind 落后 4. deduct sth. from sth. 从 …… 扣除 5. on the eve of 在 …… 前日；在 …… 前夕 6. smell of 有 …… 气味；发出 …… 气味 7. course through ( 液体等 ) 奔流，迅速流动
( 使 ) 翻身 ( roll over/pat on /run through ) I rolled the puppy over, patting him on the belly and running my fingers through his hair. roll sb. / sth. over 短语逆译 短语应用 我给小狗翻了个身，拍拍它的肚子, 并用手指梳理它身 上的毛。 。 意群提示
提供供应；供给 provide sb. with sth. 短语逆译 (provide sb. with / skill and knowledge) At college, teachers will provide students with the skills and knowledge necessary to be successful. 短语应用 大学里，教师为学生提供成功所必需的技能和知识。 意群提示
落后 ( conceit/ lag behind/ modesty/make progress ) As conceit makes one lag behind, so modesty helps one make progress. lag behind 短语逆译 短语应用 骄傲使人落后，谦虚使人进步。 意群提示
从 … 扣除 ( income tax/ be deducted from ) Nowadays income tax is normally deducted from a person’s wage before he receives it. deduct sth. from sth. 短语逆译 短语应用 如今, 个人工资所得税通常在收到工资之前就被扣除了。 意群提示
在 …… 前日； 在 …… 前夕 ( stay up late/ on the eve of ) He stayed up late and studied on the eve of the final exam. on the eve of 短语逆译 短语应用 他在期末考试的前一晚熬夜学习。 意群提示
有 …… 气味； 发出 …… 气味 ( hot afternoon sun/ smell of ) In the hot afternoon sun, the air smelled of sweat. smell of 短语逆译 短语应用 在炎热的午后阳光里，空气中闻得到汗水的气味。 意群提示
( 液体等 ) 奔流， 迅速流动 ( course through/ vessel ) As I become more and more excited, I feel my blood coursing through my vessel. course through 短语逆译 短语应用 随着心情越来越激动，我感到热血在血管中奔流。 意群提示
Functional Patterns Functional Patterns Functions & Usages Functions & Usages 1. There has been a time/ I remember a time when sb. or sth. did sth. … 用于 “ 叙述过去发生的事情 ” 。 2. Sb. or sth. be as + 形容词短语 + as … 意为 “ 像 / 如同 … 一样 ” ， 用 于说明两者的相似性。 3. With one’s last fraction of energy, sb. or sth. do sth. 用于表达 “ 某人耗尽全力做 某事 ” 。
句型提炼 你为你的 “ 家庭 ” 作出了正确的决定，然而， 我还记得曾几何时，我还是你家庭的一员。 原句译文 逆译练习 You’d made the right decision for your “family”, but I remember a time when I was part of your family. （ Para.7, L4 ）
There has been a time/ I remember a time when sb. or sth. did sth. … 句型提炼 应用提示 用于 “ 叙述过去发生的事情 ” 。 句型应用
(suffer/ physically and mentally ) I remember a time when he suffered a lot both physically and mentally. 典型例句 我还记得，他曾一度遭受身心双重打击。 意群提示
那两位好心的女士，如同人们期望的一 样，在收容所里细心地照顾着我们。 原句译文 逆译练习 The two nice ladies were as attentive to us in the shelter as they were expected. (para.10, L1) 句型提炼
sb. or sth. be as + 形容词短语 + as… 句型提炼 应用提示 用意为 “ 像 / 如同 …… 一样 ”, 用于说明两者 的相似性。 句型应用
( be curious about/ be excited ) These huge animals were as curious about us as were excited to see them. 典型例句 这些巨大的动物对我们很好奇，就像我们看见它们时 很激动一样。 意群提示
我用尽全身最后一丝力气，向她快速地摇 了摇尾巴，想让她知道我的这句 “ 你怎么能 这样呢？ ” 并不是对她说的。 原句译文 逆译练习 With my last fraction of energy, I tried to convey to her with a quick move of my tail that my “How could you?” was not meant for her. (Para.12, L3) 句型提炼
With one’s last fraction of energy, sb. or sth. do sth. 句型提炼 应用提示 用于表达 “ 用于表达 “ 某人耗尽全力做某事 ” 。 句型应用
( with one’s last fraction of energy/ struggle out of/ the collapsed building ) With his last fraction of energy, he tried to struggle out of the collapsed building. 典型例句 他用尽全身最后一丝力气，想从倒塌的建筑物中爬出 来。 意群提示
a. I waited patiently, comforted you through heartbreaks and disappointments, never scolded your bad decisions, and leaped happily when you came home or fell in love. 我耐心地等待着，在你伤 心和失望时给予安慰，我 从来不指责你做出的糟糕 决定；当你回家或恋爱时 ，我为你欢呼雀跃。
b. They buried their hands up to their wrists in my fur and pulled themselves up on unsteady legs, investigating my ears and squeezing my muscles. 他们喜欢把整个手都埋在 我的毛下，并摇摇晃晃地 站立起来，检查我的耳朵 ，挤压我的肌肉。
c. She patted my head and explained that I would waken in a better place where I wouldn’t be ignored, abused or abandoned—a place of love and light. 她拍了拍我的头，并 解释说，我醒来时会 在一个更好的地方， 一个我不会再受忽略 、遭虐待或被遗弃 — 一个有关爱和光明的 地方。
我用尽全身最后一丝力气 ，向她快速地摇了摇尾巴 ，想让她知道我的这句 “ 你怎么能这样呢？ ” 并不 是对她说的。 d. With my last fraction of energy, I tried to convey to her with a quick move of my tail that my “How could you?” was not meant for her.
1. Why do so many people raise dogs at home nowadays? 2. Why are dogs considered the most intelligent animal among all the pets people raise? 3. Is it right to discharge or kill an old dog? Why or why not? Tips
1. Why do so many people raise dogs at home nowadays? Tips Dogs have cute appearance, which is both liked by the young and old; Dogs have a sense of loyalty and friendliness, which provides people with security; Dogs can be life companions of human being, especially of the elderly; Dogs can be intelligent enough to become great helpers of the blind and other handicapped people; Dogs can share joys or sorrows with their masters….
2. Why are dogs considered the most intelligent animal among all the pets people raise? Tips Very alert and know when they are needed; Seem to understand their masters’ mood, feelings and needs; Know how to share joys or sorrows with their masters; Able to be trained to follow instruction; Have high level of loyalty & willingness to sacrifice their own lives to save ours.
Tips 3 Is it right to discharge or kill an old dog? Why or why not? Yes, because an old dog is too weak to be adopted or taken care of by people. It’s usually very expensive to attend an old dog. On the other hand, living without quality is torture to the dog as well. No, because an old dog did much to help its human master when it was young, so it needs to get attentive care. It’s not right to abandon or kill an old dog.
Talk about how dog is treated in western and Chinese cultures.
In western countries, dogs are considered as people’s best and faithful friends. They are kept as pets or companions. Therefore, people usually attach positive meaning to dogs. For example, in English many “dog” phrases and idioms with approving meaning can be observed. “A lucky dog”, “Love me, love my dog”, “Every dog has his day” and so on mirrors westerners’ attitude towards dogs. Tips How is dog treated in western and Chinese cultures?
Tips How is dog treated in foreign and Chinese cultures? In Chinese culture, dogs are perceived as humble with little importance. And people have deep-rooted prejudice against them. Therefore, in Chinese dogs are endowed with negative meanings and they are used to metaphorically describe the bad guys. What’s more, different from westerners who make laws to protect dogs from being hurt by men, Chinese has a culture of eating dogs, but nowadays it has aroused controversy.
Make comparison between different themes in Text A and Text B. Tips In Text A, the author, a physician engaged in doing animal research, expresses his growing frustration with the animal-rights movement and justifies animal research with many reasons including how medical advances benefited from the experiments on animals. Text B is a touching story that describes the painful experience and feelings from the perspective of a dog. Through this story, the author is trying to remind people that animals deserve the right to be well cared for and treated.
Based on your study of the two texts, compare the writing styles of the two texts in terms of their typical language features.
1. What are the typical language features of the two texts? 2. List more examples from the text to support your ideas. Tips
Text B uses the method of personification, narrating the dog’s unfair treatment by her master. 1. What are the typical language features of the two texts? Tips Text A is an argumentation that provides many convincing examples and evidence to defend the author’s rightfulness in doing animal research. It uses parallelism to lay emphasis.
2. List more examples from the text to support your ideas. Tips Text A parallelism : Drugs to cure infection will remain undiscovered, surgical and diagnostic techniques will remain undeveloped, and fundamental biological processes that might have been understood will remain mysteries.
Writing a letter to human beings Please work with your group members to write a letter to human beings as if you were an animal such as a cat or a dog. In the letter, you may argue for or against what humans have been doing wrong to animals, using your observation, evidence, and examples.
You may use the following expressions in your writing. There has been a time when …; With one’s last fraction of energy …; To defend sb./sth. with one’s very life; To take the cue from; To be meant for sb.; To provide sb. with sth.
Read the following poem and answer the following questions. 1. What does the poet describe in the poem? (Open) 2. How does the dog feel towards his master? (Open) Questions:
A Dog on his Master by Billy Collins As young as I look, I am growing older faster than he. Seven to one is the ratio ( 比例 ), They tend to say. Whatever the number, I will pass him one day and take the lead, The way I do on our walks in the woods. And if this ever manages to cross his mind, it would be the sweetest shadow I have ever cast on snow or grass.