Presentation on theme: "3 Unit 7 Section A Surviving an economic crisis"— Presentation transcript:
1 3 Unit 7 Section A Surviving an economic crisis FOREIGH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESSAIR FORCE ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY1
2 3 7 Economy: Power behind everyday life — Harry S. Truman It’s a recession when your neighbor loses his job; it’s a depression when you lose yours.— Harry S. TrumanHunger is not the worst feature of unemployment; idleness is.— William E. Barrett37Economy: Power behind everyday lifeUNIT2
3 Section A 3 7 Surviving an economic crisis Economy: Power behind everyday lifeUNITSurviving an economic crisisSection ATo talk about economic crisisObjectivesTo further understand the textTo apply the phrases and patternsTo master the essay writing skill
4 Contents Surviving an economic crisis Warming-up activities Text study Section AWarming-up activitiesText studyLanguage applicationSummary
5 Surviving an economic crisis Warming-up activitiesLead-inPre-reading activitiesCultural backgroundSurviving an economic crisisSection A
6 1. How does economic recession affect ordinary people? Long months of struggles;Harsh reality;Losing jobs;Losing apartment;Losing high living standards;Losing status;Losing belief and self-esteem;
7 2. Do you have any solutions to economic crisis? To go beyond short-term financial rescue solutions;To seek long-term transformation;To construct a system in which market forces are checked through ethical regulations and oversight;To construct a framework of common values.
8 1. How do you understand global economic meltdown? Pre-reading activitiesWatch and talk1. How do you understand global economic meltdown?2. What is US government’s first response to the economic crisis?Watch a video clip about economic meltdown and discuss the questions.Video Watching
10 1. How do you understand global economic meltdown? Pre-reading activitiesWatch and talk1. How do you understand global economic meltdown?Severe and sudden deterioration;Worldwide recession;Resulting in huge financial loss;Credit crunch;Stock market crash.
11 2. What is US government’s first response to the economic crisis? Pre-reading activitiesWatch and talk2. What is US government’s first response to the economic crisis?To bailout the banks with TRAP (Troubled-Asset Relief Program) so as to help banks get rid of toxic assets.
12 Compound dictationPre-reading activitiesListen to a short passage concerning economic crisis and fill in the missing information.This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.The economic ______ is claiming another victim: world trade. Last month the World Bank predicted a two percent _________ this year—the largest drop since the 1940s. Economies that depend on exports for growth have been hit hard.crisisdecreaseTo be continued
13 Compound dictationPre-reading activitiesListen to a short passage concerning economic crisis and fill in the missing information.Credit has improved in some cases since the financial crisis __________ in September. But falling demand, including reduced demand for oil, has cut trade around the world. The International Monetary Fund recently called for government spending, tax cuts and international ___________ to support growth.worsenedcooperationTo be continued
14 Compound dictationPre-reading activitiesListen to a short passage concerning economic crisis and fill in the missing information.To ease credit, the Bank of England last week reduced its main interest rate to one and one-half percent — its lowest ever. The bank was ___________ in Britain’s economy may have _______ by one percent just in the final three months of last year. The first _________ are expected at the end of January.establishedshrunkestimatesTo be continued
15 Compound dictationPre-reading activitiesListen to a short passage concerning economic crisis and fill in the missing information.This week, Germany’s ___________________ agreed to an economic aid package worth about 67 billion dollars. The two-year plan calls for spending on public works and a tax cut for low-income Germans. Critics considered an earlier measure too small to ________________ in Europe’s largest economy.coalition governmentfight the recession
16 1. What is economic crisis? Cultural backgroundEconomyQuestions Previewing1. What is economic crisis?2. What does mortgage refer to?3. What triggered US subprime mortgage crisis?Tips
17 1. What is economic crisis? Cultural backgroundEconomy1. What is economic crisis?Sudden downturn;Financial crisis;Falling GDP;Drying up of liquidity;Rising / falling prices.
18 2. What does mortgage refer to? Cultural backgroundEconomy2. What does mortgage refer to?A legal agreement;The purchase of real estate;Payment periods;Interest rates.
19 3. What triggered US subprime mortgage crisis? Cultural backgroundEconomy3. What triggered US subprime mortgage crisis?A national banking emergency;A large decline in home prices;Declines in residential investment;Reductions in household spending and business investment;Mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures;The devaluation of housing-related securities.
20 Surviving an economic crisis Section AMain idea & structureLanguage focusCritical thinkingText study
21 Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureWhat was the consequence when large numbers of homeowners failed to repay their loans? (Para.1)TipsThe companies that had the oversight and those that owned the loans (as well as their subsidiaries and their shareholders) lost sizable amounts of money.
22 Main ideas of the parts Part I (Para. 1) Main idea & structurePart I (Para. 1)The text starts with an introduction about the ___________ caused by the economic crisis, in which the author sets forth the thesis statement — many people experienced long months of struggles when the _______________ swept the nation. (Para.1)great impacteconomic slump
23 Where is she going? Main ideas of the parts Main idea & structureSue faced life as _______ after being evicted from her apartment. (Paras. 2-3)migrantSue packed up and drove out of town. (Para. 2)She wound up at a motel. (Para. 3)Where is she going?
24 Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureWhat were “99ers”? (Para.4)TipsThey were jobless people who were no longer allowed to claim unemployment insurance benefits which they could only receive for 99 weeks.24
25 What did the unemployment benefits mean to the layoffs? (Para. 5) Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureWhat did the unemployment benefits mean to the layoffs? (Para. 5)TipsAlthough the unemployment benefits were small in amount, they helped jobless people to survive and to keep their life going.25
26 Sue’s ______________________ had expired. (Paras. 4-6) Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureSue’s ______________________ had expired. (Paras. 4-6)unemployment benefitsSue was a “99er”. (Para. 4)Unemployment benefits were her _______. (Para. 5)lifelineshe began to tumble over the ____________. (Para. 6)economic cliff
27 Body: Section 1 (Paras. 2-6) Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureBody: Section 1 (Paras. 2-6)Sue faced life as migrant because her unemployment benefits had expired.
28 Because she went back and forth between resolve and despair. Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureWhy does the author say Sue spent each day like a ping pong ball? (Para. 7)TipsBecause she went back and forth between resolve and despair.28
29 Every aspect of her life Every aspect of her life Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureHow did the economic crisis affect Sue’s life? (Paras. 7-13)EducationShelterLiving standardEvery aspect of her lifeEvery aspect of her lifeBelief and confidenceIncomeSelf-esteem29
30 Body: Section 2 (Paras. 7-13) Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureBody: Section 2 (Paras. 7-13)The economic crisis damaged every aspect of Sue’s life such as her loss of income, a high living standard, her unfinished education, shelter, belief and confidence in life, and self-esteem.
31 Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureWhy did Sue think the only help she was going to get was from herself? (Para.14)TipsShe couldn’t receive effective support from the government and social organizations. Furthermore, what she needed was far beyond what her friends could offer and her sons were also not in a position to help her. So, she could only rely on herself.31
32 rice and noodles a loaf of white bread in despair Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureAll her food supplies were put on the shelves under the television. They were _______________ she mixed with water in the motel’s ice bucket and heated up in a microwave; peanut butter and jelly; ___________________. For Sue, a person __________ this food was only enough to stay alive. (Para. 15)rice and noodlesa loaf of white breadin despair
33 Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureWhat new struggles and obstacles did Sue have to face when she applied for a job? (Para.16)TipsShe had to deal with new difficulties like what to do for an address for job applications, and worried that calls would not reach her because her cell phone was cut off for non-payment.33
34 Body: Section 3 (Paras. 14-16) Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureBody: Section 3 (Paras )This section is about how Sue’s endeavor to fight the harsh reality only gave way to feeling of helplessness and the reality which got her in a corner.
35 Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureDo you think Sue’s life will be better and better after her receiving $300 cash from her old friend? (Para.17)TipsNo. There is no doubt that this was the only hope in her difficult situation, but it was just a temporary remedy. She couldn’t live on that kind of hope very long and her future might be even more brutal.35
36 Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structureBody: Section 4 (Para. 17)This section is the conclusion of Sue’s story. It reiterates Sue’s continuous struggle for a living, and how she continues to look for a ray of hope, despite her hardship.
37 Main ideas of the partsMain idea & structurePart II (Paras. 2-17)Part II is the body of the essay, containing four sections to expose the severe impact Sue suffered from the loss of her job.
38 Main idea & structureMain idea of the textThis text is a narrative essay that touches upon the severe impact of the economic crisis on ordinary working-class people through the example of Sue. The author intends to provoke among the readers sympathy for ordinary working people and thoughts about the disastrous consequences of the economic crisis.
39 Introduction about the great impact caused by the economic crisis Structure of the textMain idea & structureIntroduction about the great impact caused by the economic crisisMany people experienced long months of struggles when the economic slump swept across the nation. (Para. 1)
40 Introduction about the great impact caused by the economic crisis Structure of the textMain idea & structureIntroduction about the great impact caused by the economic crisisBody—the economic crisis brought about disastrous effects on Sue’s lifeThe economic crisis affected every aspect of her life. (Paras. 7-13)Sue struggled to fight the harsh reality. (Paras )Sue needed to continue her struggle for a living. (Para. 17)Sue faced life as a migrant because her unemployment benefits had expired. (Paras. 2-6)
41 Surviving an economic crisis Summary of the textMain idea & structureSurviving an economic crisisThe ______________ originated in the United States. The authorities failed to take effective measures to regulate the ________, whose effects soon spiraled into the US job market as _______ and ___________. Consequently, many people experienced long months of struggle just like Sue.economic slumpmortgagelayoffsterminationsTo be continued
42 unemployment insurance benefits Summary of the textMain idea & structureAfter being ___________ her apartment, Sue packed up her belongings and drove out of town. She finally __________ at a motel where she had to pay a deposit of $260 which she had managed to _______ ________ from friends and from selling her living room set. Sue became “99er” because she had exhausted the maximum 99 weeks of ____________________________ insurance benefits.evicted fromwound upscrapetogetherunemployment insurance benefitsTo be continued
43 Summary of the textMain idea & structureShe lost her income, the life of comfort and respect, the opportunities for an education. Even worse, a municipal council gave her 10 days to leave her apartment _______ because she was ____________ by bureaucracy for her not paying the rent. The sudden worsening _____________ made Sue lose her belief and confident in life. Her endeavor to fight the harsh reality only gave way to a feeling of ____________.for goodcaught up withliving conditionshelplessness
44 Practical Phrases Specific Meanings Language focusPractical phrasesPractical PhrasesSpecific Meanings1. pack up把······打包；2. wind up以······告终3. scrape sth. together/up勉强筹集，凑足4. a roof over one’s head栖身之所；住处5. catch up with sb.抓住并惩罚（某人）6. for good永远
45 Practical phrases pack up 短语应用 意群提示 把······打包 短语逆译 Language focusPractical phrases把······打包pack up短语逆译短语应用音乐会我们到场太迟了，音乐家们都已经在收拾乐器了。意群提示(too late for / pack up /instrumen )We arrived too late for the concert, just as the musicians were already packing up their instruments.
46 Practical phrases wind up 短语应用 意群提示 以······告终 短语逆译 Language focusPractical phrases以······告终短语逆译wind up短语应用在极限运动（比如跳伞）中，你可能会冒严重受伤甚至赔上性命的风险。意群提示(extreme sports/parachute jump/take the risk/wind up )In extreme sports (such as parachuting), you take the risk that you may wind up seriously injured or even dead.
47 scrape sth. together/up Language focusPractical phrases勉强筹集，凑足短语逆译scrape sth. together/up短语应用他们几乎连火车票的钱都凑不齐。意群提示(hardly/scrape up/train fare)They hardly scrape up enough money for the train fare.
48 Practical phrases a roof over one’s head 短语应用 意群提示 栖身之所；住处 短语逆译 Language focusPractical phrases栖身之所；住处短语逆译a roof over one’s head短语应用对成千上万想有一个家的年轻人来说，找到可以栖身的房子实在是一个难题。意群提示(a roof over one’s head/thousands of/seek a home)Finding a roof over their head has become a real problem for thousands of young people seeking a home of their own.
49 Practical phrases 短语应用 意群提示 抓住并惩罚（某人） catch up with sb. 短语逆译 Language focusPractical phrases抓住并惩罚（某人）短语逆译catch up with sb.短语应用他由于有十年都未支付给前妻和两个孩子的抚养费而受到法律的制裁。意群提示(catch up with sb. /fail to/ pay child support)The law caught up with him for 10 years of failing to pay child support to his ex-wife for his two children.
50 Practical phrases for good 短语应用 意群提示 永远 短语逆译 这次受伤可能会使他永远告别足球。 Language focusPractical phrases永远短语逆译for good短语应用这次受伤可能会使他永远告别足球。意群提示( keep out of/ for good)The injury may keep him out of football for good.
51 Functional patterns Functional Patterns Functions & Usages Language focusFunctional patternsFunctional PatternsFunctions & Usages1. Sb. knows that in all likelihood…用于表达“某人对事情的判断”。2. Sb. wonders if he/she will ever again do sth.用于表达“某人是否能达到从前的状态”。3. Sb. worries about what will happen when...用于表达“某人对事情的担心”。
52 原句译文 逆译练习 Functional patterns 苏明白自己最终很可能以车为家。 Language focusFunctional patterns原句译文苏明白自己最终很可能以车为家。逆译练习Sue knew that in all likelihood, she would end up living in her car. (Para. 4, L1)句型提炼
53 句型提炼 应用提示 Functional patterns Sb. knows that in all likelihood… Language focusFunctional patterns句型提炼Sb. knows that in all likelihood…应用提示用于描述“某人对事情的判断”。句型应用
54 Functional patterns 典型例句 意群提示 权威人士们明白如果物价继续攀升，消费者极有可能会勒紧裤腰带而更加谨慎地购物。 Language focusFunctional patterns典型例句权威人士们明白如果物价继续攀升，消费者极有可能会勒紧裤腰带而更加谨慎地购物。意群提示(authorities/tighten one’s belts/ keep climbing)The authorities knew that in all likelihood, consumers would be more careful about their purchases and tighten their belts if prices keep climbing.
55 原句译文 逆译练习 Functional patterns 她不知道自己还能否重温那舒适而又受人尊敬的生活。 Language focusFunctional patterns原句译文她不知道自己还能否重温那舒适而又受人尊敬的生活。逆译练习She wondered if she would ever again be able to reclaim that life of comfort and respect. (Para. 11, L1-2)句型提炼
56 句型提炼 应用提示 Functional patterns Language focusFunctional patterns句型提炼Sb. wonders if he/she will ever again do sth.应用提示用于表达“某人是否能达到从前的状态”。句型应用
57 Functional patterns 典型例句 意群提示 曾经辉煌的球队不知道他们还能否再次赢得世界杯的比赛。 Language focusFunctional patterns典型例句曾经辉煌的球队不知道他们还能否再次赢得世界杯的比赛。意群提示(grow into the glory/ win the World Cup)The soccer team, which used to grow into its glory,wondered if they would ever again win the World Cup.
58 原句译文 逆译练习 Functional patterns Language focusFunctional patterns原句译文她还担心要是手机因为欠费停机了怎么办？别人拨打她的号码，就如石沉大海，她无法接听。逆译练习She worried about what would happen when her cell phone was cut off for non-payment, and calls to her number would disappear into an invisible world she could not reach. (Para. 16, L2-4)句型提炼
59 句型提炼 应用提示 Functional patterns Language focusFunctional patterns句型提炼Sb. worries about what will happen when...应用提示用于描述“某人对事情的担心”。句型应用
60 Functional patterns 典型例句 意群提示 年迈而贫穷的老人担心要是自己像寄生虫一样的儿子回家找他要钱怎么办？ Language focusFunctional patterns典型例句年迈而贫穷的老人担心要是自己像寄生虫一样的儿子回家找他要钱怎么办？意群提示(aging man / like a parasite)The poor aging man worried about what would happen when his son returned to him asking for money like a parasite.
61 Language appreciation Language focusLanguage appreciation许许多多的人正经历的这场经济萧条发端于美国。对抵押贷款监管不力，致使当时的风险评估远低于现在的最终结果。a. The economic slump so many people suffered through originated in the United States, with a regulatory failure of mortgages rated less risky than they turned out to be. (Para.1, L1)
62 Language appreciation Language focusLanguage appreciation些许的失业救济金对那些失去工作的人来说可是救命钱，这使他们不至于形貌落魄，无立锥之地；不至于无钱加油，缴不起电话费。b. Modest payments of unemployment benefits were a lifeline that enabled people who were out-of-work to maintain at least an appearance of normalcy, keeping a roof over their heads, putting gas in their cars, paying electric and phone bills. (Para.5, L2)
63 Language appreciation Language focusLanguage appreciation当苏收到最后一笔失业救济支票时，阵阵悲凉涌上心头。c. When Sue received her last unemployment check, she felt a wave of profound grief. (Para.7, L1)
64 Language appreciation Language focusLanguage appreciation每天，苏就像乒乓球一样在信心和绝望之间起落不定。d. Each day, like a ping pong ball, Sue went back and forth between resolve and despair. (Para.7, L4)
65 Language appreciation Language focusLanguage appreciation苏连日来都在网上查找各种工作指南，四处求职：但一次次无声的拒绝让她陷于无助。e. Sue’s days were spent surfing Internet job indexes, applying for jobs where the silent “No.” “No.” “No.” gave way to a feeling of helplessness. (Para.15, L4)
66 Critical thinkingTheme explorationWho suffer the most severe impact in an economic downturn? How?In what sense is the establishment of a social security system important to economic development?What initiatives should the government undertake to save people like Sue from feeling despaired?TipsWhich do you think is important for the government, to regulate economic activities, or to allow the market complete freedom?Tips
67 Who suffer the most severe impact in an economic downturn? How? Critical thinkingTheme explorationWho suffer the most severe impact in an economic downturn? How?Women and children suffer most:Women are among the first to lose job; having to work harder to seek additional income; spending less on nurture and care.Women and children lack voice and power which contribute to abuse and exploitation.
68 Critical thinkingTheme exploration2. In what sense is the establishment of a social security system important to economic development?To be a source of income;To reduce poverty;To improve the standard of living;To stabilize society;To stimulate domestic demand;To promote economic growth.
69 Critical thinkingTheme exploration3. What initiatives should the government undertake to save people like Sue form feeling despaired?To extend the period of unemployment insurance benefits for people;To create job opportunities to help them with employment.
70 Critical thinkingTheme exploration4. Which do you think is important for the government, to regulate economic activities, or to allow the market complete freedom?It is important for the government to regulate economic activities in an economy so as to:1) protect the environment;2) help people who may be too young, too old, too ill or otherwise unable;3) maintain economic stability.to be continued
71 Critical thinkingTheme exploration4. Which do you think is important for the government, to regulate economic activities, or to allow the market complete freedom?It is important for the government to allow the market complete freedom:1) Free market economy is driven by individual innovation and the notion that hard work and creativity will be rewarded by success.2) It make us strive to do our best, leading to more value creation.
72 Critical thinkingCulture explorationHow do you understand the following quotes “农业生产是我们经济建设的第一位。” and “Mercantilism was dominant in ancient Europe which frequently led to war and also motivated colonial expansion.”?According to Chairman Mao, the mainstream of the economic construction of China was based on the agricultural industry. The agricultural society, which lasted for several thousand years, exerted a strong influence on the development of the Chinese culture. So, the agricultural economy always has a leading role in China.to be continued
73 Critical thinkingCulture explorationHow do you understand the following quotes “农业生产是我们经济建设的第一位。” and “Mercantilism was dominant in ancient Europe which frequently led to war and also motivated colonial expansion.”?But Marx Weber thought ancient Europeans were characterised as ocean civilization.They cannot be self-sufficent in food and therefore creating overseas colonies. They promoted manufacturing through research or direct subsidies and a large working population was encouraged.
74 Watch a video clip and discuss the questions. Critical thinkingWatch a video clip and discuss the questions.Q1: What is their top priority as a country according to US president Obama?TipsQ2: How is Obama calling on Congress to extend unemployment benefits ?TipsVideo Watching
76 Critical thinking1. What is their top priority as a country according to US president Obama?According to Obama, their top priority should be restoring opportunity and broad-based economic growth for all Americans.
77 2. How is Obama calling on Congress to extend unemployment benefits? Critical thinking2. How is Obama calling on Congress to extend unemployment benefits?According to Obama, unemployment insurance is one of the most effective ways to boost the economy. If members of Congress don’t extend unemployment insurance before they leave on their vocations, 1.3 million Americans will lose this lifeline. It won’t only hurt families already struggling, but also harm US economy.to be continued
78 2. How is Obama calling on Congress to extend unemployment benefits? Critical thinking2. How is Obama calling on Congress to extend unemployment benefits?The evidence shows that unemployment insurance doesn’t stop people from trying hard to find work. Without the ability to feed their families or pay the bills, many people currently looking for work could stop looking for good. The Americans who are desperately looking for work should be given the help they need so that they can keep on looking.to be continued
79 2. How is Obama calling on Congress to extend unemployment benefits? Critical thinking2. How is Obama calling on Congress to extend unemployment benefits?Finally, he is calling on Congress to make it easier for business to attract more customers and to keep doing everything they can to make America a place where anyone who works hard has a chance to get ahead.
80 Surviving an economic crisis Language applicationWriting devicesEssay writingParagraph translationSurviving an economic crisisSection A
81 Further develop a cause-and-effect essay Writing devicesFurther develop a cause-and-effect essayWhen using the writing the technique for cause and effect, we have to consider two strategic points:Whether we are exploring causes or effects or both;What is the order of the causes or effects we are going to follow, e.g. from the least to the most important or vice versa.to be continued
82 The purpose of cause-and-effect essays Writing devicesThe purpose of cause-and-effect essaysTo explain to readers:the cause of an event or situation;the effects of an event or situation;both causes and effects.to be continued
83 What should we focus on when writing this type of essay? Writing devicesWhat should we focus on when writing this type of essay?The type of essay we write depends on our topic and main point. If we want to explain why we moved out of our family home, our essay would focus on causes. If we want to tell readers the impact a person had on our life, our essay would focus on effects. In this unit, we’d like to draw students’ attention to effects.to be continued
84 Four bases checklist for cause-and- effect: Writing devicesFour bases checklist for cause-and- effect:1. About unityDoes the essay have a clearly stated thesis?Is there any irrelevant material that should be eliminated?to be continued
85 Four bases checklist for cause-and- effect: Writing devicesFour bases checklist for cause-and- effect:2. About coherenceHave I used transitional words to help readers follow my train of thought?Have I provided a concluding paragraph to wrap up the essay?to be continued
86 Four bases checklist for cause-and- effect: Writing devicesFour bases checklist for cause-and- effect:3. About sentence skillsHave I used consistent point of view throughout my essay?Have I used specific rather than general words?Have I avoided wordiness and used concise wording?Are my sentences varied?Have I checked for spelling and other sentence skills?
87 Writing devicesLet’s look at Paragraph 1 & Paragraphs 7-13 of Text A to see how cause-and-effect method is used to develop ideas:
88 Her loss of income. (Para.7) Writing devicesAnalysis of the textCauseParagraph I is the introduction of the passage, serving as the root cause why so many people experienced long months of struggles when economic slump swept across the nation.Her loss of income. (Para.7)Her loss of high living standard. (Para.8)EffectsHer unfinished education. (Para.9)Her loss of shelter. (Para.10)Her loss of belief and confidence in life. (Para.11)Her loss of self-esteem. (Paras.12-13)to be continued
89 Read the sample essay and see how the effects are developed. Writing devicesRead the sample essay and see how the effects are developed.
90 Career opportunities created by the aging population Writing devicesTopic:Career opportunities created by the aging populationIntroduction:Thesis statement: The aging population in America creates career opportunities.to be continued
91 Writing devicesBody:Effect 1: Medical and health professions, as well as other professions, are needed.Effect 2: Lawyers are in need.Effect 3: Businessmen see huge opportunities.Conclusion:The expansion of America’s elderly population will provided good job opportunities in many areas.to be continued
92 Writing devicesSample:Old is suddenly in. By 2050, 25 percent of all Americans will older than 65, up from 14 percent in The change poses profound questions for the government and society, of course. But it also creates career opportunities in the medical and health professions, in law, and in business.to be continued
93 Writing devicesSample:Medical and health professions, as well as other professions, are imperatively needed. “In addition to physicians, we’re going to need more sociologists, biologists, and urban planners,” says professor Edward Schneider of the University of Southern California’s (USC) school of Gerontology (老年学).Lawyers can specialize in “elder law”, which covers everything from trusts and estate planning to nursing-home abuse and age discrimination.to be continued
94 Writing devicesSample:Businessmen see huge opportunities in the elder market because the baby boomers, 74 million strong, are likely to be the wealthiest group of retirees in human history. “Any student who combines an expert knowledge in gerontology with, say, an MBA or law degree will have a license to print money,” one professor says.to be continued
95 Writing devicesSample:Margarite Santos is a 21-year-old senior at USC. She began college a biology major but found she was “really bored with bacteria”. So she took a class in gerontology and discovered that she liked it. She says, “I did volunteer work in retirement homes and it was very satisfying.”In short, the expansion of America’s elderly population will provide good job opportunities in many areas.
96 Essay writingWriting practiceDirections: Write an essay of no less than 200 words on one of the following topics. One topic has an outline you can follow.
97 Topic: The effects of getting married in college Essay writingTopic: The effects of getting married in collegeIntroduction: Thesis statement: Getting married in college will bring about dramatic harmful effects on students’ development.Body:Effect 1: Maintaining a marriage would do nothing but disturb students’ pursuit of education.Effect 2: Supposing a family is surely a heavy economic burden to both students and their parents.Effect 3: Raising a child may be difficult for young parents.Conclusion: College students are supposed to achieve academic success, so they should not marry young.
98 You may adopt the following expressions. Essay writingYou may adopt the following expressions.take time and commitmentstrike a balance between study and familyyield negative consequence on their future career and lifebe not financially independentbe psychologically immature to some extentbe beyond their capability to handlehave catastrophic effects on their children’s growth and development
99 The effects of peer pressure Essay writingMore topics:The effects of peer pressureThe effects of excessive packing of products
100 Paragraph translation Translate a paragraph based on a summary of the text by using the expressions from the text.
101 Paragraph translation economic slump当经济萧条在全国范围内爆发之后，许多普通工薪阶层的人们几个月来都在苦苦挣扎，正如苏.约翰逊一样。苏是失业群体的一份子，因为无钱支付房租，她不得不打包收拾自己的东西，离城而去。她即将面临流浪的生活，这在以前是很难想象的，而她在不久前还有着体面的工作，不错的收入，并在商学院攻读研究生。a group of jobless peoplepack uplife of migrantdecent jobTo be continued
102 Paragraph translation 失业保险救济金可以使失业人员不至于形貌落魄，无立锥之地。 可一旦收不到失业救济支票，哪怕是像苏这样曾经过着体面富足生活的人，也会日益跌入经济窘迫的深渊。苏一直在不断地努力以摆脱困境，但她还不得不面临失去自己所拥有的一切的残酷事实。尽管困难重重，她仍继续苦苦挣扎着，寻求一缕希望。a roof over their headstumble overharsh realitya ray of hopeSamples
103 Paragraph translation Many ordinary working-class people, like Sue Johnson, experienced long months of struggles when the economic slump swept across the nation. Sue was part of a group of jobless people and she had to pack up her belongings and drove out of town for not having money to pay the rent. She faced life of migrant, a previously unimaginable situation for a woman who, not that long before, had had a decent job and a respectable income and been a student in a graduate business school.
104 Paragraph translation Unemployment insurance benefits enabled jobless people to maintain/keep at least an appearance of normalcy, keeping a roof over their heads. But without the checks, people like Sue, who once lived a decent and rich life, began to tumble over the economic cliff. Sue was making great efforts to fight obstacles, but she had to face the harsh reality of losing everything she possessed before. She continued to struggle for a living and to look for a ray of hope, despite her hardship.
105 the useful expressions the functional patterns Thematic studySummaryRevision ofthe useful expressionsthe functional patternsSurviving an economic crisisSection A
106 the useful expressions Revision ofthe useful expressionsLanguage points—Useful expressions1 偿还贷款2 巨额亏损3 面临着被驱逐的境地4 在一家汽车旅馆落脚5 失业保险救济金6 不至于形貌落魄7 立锥之地/栖身之所8 前途未卜9 跌入经济窘迫的深渊10 在信心和绝望之间起落不定repay the loansdrastic lossesface tenant evictionwind up at a motelunemployment insurance benefitsmaintain at least an appearance of normalcya roof over one’s headface unsure futurestumble over the economic cliffgo back and forth between resolve and despair
107 the useful expressions Revision ofthe useful expressionsLanguage points—Useful expressions11 一落千丈12 通过各种渠道求职13 不断骚扰14 只有遵从15 起薪干起的零活16 医疗保障体系17 被看成是寄生虫18 工作指南19 石沉大海20 一缕希望sickening plungeapply for every possible job in the employment spectrumconstant harassmenthave no choice but to complyminimum-wage retail jobshealthcare safety netbe seen as a parasitejob indexesdisappear into an invisible worlda ray of hope
108 the functional patterns Revision ofthe functional patternsLanguage points—Useful patternsFunctional PatternsFunctions & Usages1. Sb. wonders if he/she will ever again do sth.用于表达“某人是否能达到从前的状态”。2. Sb. worries about what will happen when...用于表达“某人对事情的担心”。3. Sb. knows that in all likelihood…用于表达“某人对事情的判断”。上面挤，下面空