# The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence.

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The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence.

Problem/Question Observation/Research Formulate a Hypothesis Experiment Collect and Analyze Results Conclusion Communicate the Results

Ask a Question The Study of Life  Scientific inquiry begins with observation.  Scientific inquiry involves asking questions and processing information from a variety of reliable sources. Methods of Science Section 3

Form a Hypothesis The Study of Life  A hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation.  Predicts a possible answer to the problem or question  When a hypothesis is supported by data from additional investigations, usually it is considered valid and is accepted by the scientific community. Methods of Science Section 3

Collect the Data Experiment The Study of Life  Investigation or planned way to test a hypothesis in a controlled setting  A way to collect data and determine the value of the dependent variable  Repeatable procedure and results Methods of Science Section 3

Controlled Experiments The Study of Life  A control group in an experiment is a group used for comparison.  The experimental group is the group exposed to the factor being tested.  A constant is a something that does not change for the duration of an experiment, a value that remains the same  A variable is something that changes, independent variable and dependent variable Methods of Science Section 3

Experimental Design The Study of Life  Independent variable—only one factor in a controlled experiment can change at a time.  Changes unrelated to other factors  A variable we manipulate or change on purpose  Whose value we know before we start an experiment Methods of Science DeIndependent Variables Section 3 What is an Independent Variable? Example: Does the drop height affect the bounce height of a superball? We know the drop heights we will use.

Experimental Design The Study of Life  Dependent variable—results from or depends on changes to the independent variable.  The variable we are trying to rule out  The variable whose value we do not know before we start an experiment Methods of Science DeIndependent Variables Section 3 What is an Dependent Variable? Example: Does the drop height affect the bounce height of a superball? We do not know the bounce heights before we start.

Data Gathering The Study of Life  Data—information gained from observations.  Quantitative data can be measurements of time, temperature, length, mass, area, volume, density, or other factors.  Qualitative data are descriptions of what our senses detect. Methods of Science Section 3

The Study of Life Metric System  SI units (International System of Units) are commonly used in science for consistency and ease of communication.  The metric system uses units with divisions that are powers of ten. Methods of Science Section 3

Analyze the Data The Study of Life  A graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp and helps us visualize numerical data  Types: Bar graphs, Pie graphs, Line graphs Methods of Science Section 3

Report Conclusions Methods of Science The Study of Life  Conclusion statement presents the findings of the experiment, what the data shows, and states if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (negated).  If the reviewers agree on the merit of the paper, then the paper is published for review by the public and use by other scientists. Section 3

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