The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence.
Problem/Question Observation/Research Formulate a Hypothesis Experiment Collect and Analyze Results Conclusion Communicate the Results
Ask a Question The Study of Life Scientific inquiry begins with observation. Scientific inquiry involves asking questions and processing information from a variety of reliable sources. Methods of Science Section 3
Form a Hypothesis The Study of Life A hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation. Predicts a possible answer to the problem or question When a hypothesis is supported by data from additional investigations, usually it is considered valid and is accepted by the scientific community. Methods of Science Section 3
Collect the Data Experiment The Study of Life Investigation or planned way to test a hypothesis in a controlled setting A way to collect data and determine the value of the dependent variable Repeatable procedure and results Methods of Science Section 3
Controlled Experiments The Study of Life A control group in an experiment is a group used for comparison. The experimental group is the group exposed to the factor being tested. A constant is a something that does not change for the duration of an experiment, a value that remains the same A variable is something that changes, independent variable and dependent variable Methods of Science Section 3
Experimental Design The Study of Life Independent variable—only one factor in a controlled experiment can change at a time. Changes unrelated to other factors A variable we manipulate or change on purpose Whose value we know before we start an experiment Methods of Science DeIndependent Variables Section 3 What is an Independent Variable? Example: Does the drop height affect the bounce height of a superball? We know the drop heights we will use.
Experimental Design The Study of Life Dependent variable—results from or depends on changes to the independent variable. The variable we are trying to rule out The variable whose value we do not know before we start an experiment Methods of Science DeIndependent Variables Section 3 What is an Dependent Variable? Example: Does the drop height affect the bounce height of a superball? We do not know the bounce heights before we start.
Data Gathering The Study of Life Data—information gained from observations. Quantitative data can be measurements of time, temperature, length, mass, area, volume, density, or other factors. Qualitative data are descriptions of what our senses detect. Methods of Science Section 3
The Study of Life Metric System SI units (International System of Units) are commonly used in science for consistency and ease of communication. The metric system uses units with divisions that are powers of ten. Methods of Science Section 3
Analyze the Data The Study of Life A graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp and helps us visualize numerical data Types: Bar graphs, Pie graphs, Line graphs Methods of Science Section 3
Report Conclusions Methods of Science The Study of Life Conclusion statement presents the findings of the experiment, what the data shows, and states if the hypothesis was correct (supported) or incorrect (negated). If the reviewers agree on the merit of the paper, then the paper is published for review by the public and use by other scientists. Section 3