3 Some dates are approximate, some are in dispute Est. Year BCProphet From / To Period AddressObadiah 848 / 841 Pre-Exile ? (Exile ? 584) EdomJoel 835 / 835 Pre-Exile JudahJonah 782 / 753 Pre-Exile AssyriaAmos 760 / 753 Pre-Exile IsraelHosea 755 / 715 Pre-Exile Israellsaiah 740 / 680 Pre-Exile JudahMicah 735 / 700 Pre-Exile Judah, Israel in Exile JudahNahum 664 / 654 Pre-Exile Judah, Israel in Exile AssyriaZephaniah 632 / 628 Pre-Exile Judah, Israel in Exile JudahJeremiah 627 / 580 Pre-Exile Judah, Israel in Exile JudahHabakkuk 609 / 605 Pre-Exile Judah, Israel in Exile JudahDaniel 605 / 535 Judah also In Exile JudahEzekiel 593 / 571 Judah also In Exile JudahHaggai 520 / 520 Post-Exile Returned JewZechariah 520 / 480 Post-Exile Returned JewMalachi 432 / 424 Post-Exile Returned Jew
4 What Prophecy ???Jonah is the only ‘prophetic’ book in scripture that simply tells a story rather than delivering even a single specific prophecy.The story centers on Nineveh, a heathen city of Assyria.It makes no mention of Israel, which is referred to by every other prophet.There ARE lots of theological and moral lessons for us to learn, but that isn't the PRIMARY reason the story of Jonah’s trip to Nineveh and its aftermath is included in Scripture.This story is included in the Scripturesto show us what God is like.Continually think about the kind of "God"that is presented to us in this story.
5 God is a god of the second chance !!! The Book of JonahChapterThe Storm 1Why did he flee?The Fish 2Did this really happen?The City 3Why Nineveh?The Lord 4Why Chapter 4?Jonah did not want God to spare Nineveh. (A patriot?)Jesus authenticated both the fish, and repentance of NinevehSome believe Jonah died, and rose. Psalm “sheol”Nineveh was an example…God is a god of the second chance !!!
6 Outline of Jonah Jonah 1:1-2:10 The First Commission of Jonah Jonah 1:1-3 The Disobedience to the First CallJonah 1:4-17 The Judgment on JonahJonah 1: The Great StormJonah 1:17 The Great Salvation of Jonah by the FishJonah 2:1-9 The Prayer of JonahJonah 2:10 The Deliverance of JonahJonah 3:1-4:11 The Second Commission of JonahJonah 3:1-4 The Obedience to the Second CallJonah 3:5-10 The Repentance of NinevehJonah 3:5-9 The Great FastJonah 3:10 The Great Salvation of Nineveh by GodJonah 4:1-3 The Prayer of JonahJonah 4:4-11 The Rebuke of Jonah by God
7 Jonah: The Reluctant Prophet A Warning to NinevehLater years of Joash; Early years of Jeroboam IIQuadrangle of cities, 60 miles circumference; 350 sq mi;Walls 100 ft high; 1500 towers ft high; chariots 3 abreast;>1 million pop.Fact or fiction?Jesus Himself validated irThe Fish Matthew 12:39; 16:4The Repentance of Nineveh Matthew 12:41Historical equivalents; men who survived fishJonah a patriot? Did not want Nineveh spared - for Israel’s sakeIsaiah’s prophecy Isaiah 7:17Hosea’s prophecy Hosea 9:3; 10:6,7; 11:5Amos’ prophecy Amos 3:7
8 Ten Miracles 1) The Storm 2) Selection of Jonah as guilty 3) Sudden subsisting of the storm4) Great fish: (at the right time and place!)5) Preservation of Jonah6) Ejection--safe and sound--on dry land7) The Gourd8) The Worm(s)9) East wind10) Repentance of entire city of Nineveh!
9 Foreshadows salvation and the gentiles being brought in - the ‘Church’ Trio of prophets at end of Northern KingdomElisha dies and is buriedDeath and Burial of ChristJonah goes to ‘Sheol’, comes up again untouched by death’s corruptionResurrection of ChristElijah ascended into heavenAscension of ChristJonah a messenger to the Gentiles
10 Foreshadows Israel’s History Disobedient to heavenly commissionOut of their own landPrecarious refuge among the GentilesEverywhere a source of troubleYet witnessing to the true GodCast out by the GentilesMiraculously preserved amid their calamitiesCalling on YHWH at last
11 The 3rd day: Hosea 6:1-2For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sinsaccording to the Scriptures;And that he was buried;And that he rose again the third dayaccording to the Scriptures. 1 Cor 15:3-43rd Day - According to which Scriptures?New Life on the 3rd Day Gen 1:9-13The Wedding at Cana John 2:1Abraham’s Offering Isaac Gen 22:4 ; Heb 11:19Jonah and the Great Fish Jonah 1:17Jonah is one of the most maligned books of the Bible!
12 Jonah: Curriculum Vitae (Resume’) Date and place: Written in Palestine about BCAuthor: Jonah himself(Jonah 1:1; 2:1; 4:1; 2 Kings 14:23-27;Matthew 12:39-41; 16:4; Luke 11:29-30).Statistics: 32nd book of the Bible;4 chapters; 48 verses;1,321 words; 8 commands;12 questions; no promises;1 verse of fulfilled prophecy;6 distinct messages from God(Jonah 1:2; 2:10; 3:2; 4:4; 4:9-10).Contemporaries: Homer, Elisha, Hosea, Amos …
13 Jonah: Curriculum Vitae (Resume’) Theme: The book is a story of a man who, after being chastened by the Lord for disobedience, preached to and converted the whole city of Nineveh.Purpose: To show why the destruction of Nineveh and the Assyrian empire was delayed by God for over a century;To illustrate the fact that God's mercy and salvation are for both Jews and Gentiles who will repent and turn to Him; andTo typify and illustrate the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, Matthew 12:40.Authenticity: Jesus recognized the historicity of Jonah (Mt 12:41; Lk 11:29-32).– Jesus called him a prophet (Mt 12:39).– Jesus confirmed the miracle of Jonah’s recovery from the fish (Mt 12:40).– Jesus based His call to repentance in His day on the validity of Jonah’s message of repentance (Mt 12:41; Lk 11:29-32)Words to watch: Arise, Appointed, Great …
14 Something’s fishy! This is hard to swallow! Nicodemus saith unto them, (he that came to Jesus by night, being one of them,) Doth our law judge any man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth?They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee?Search, and look: for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.John 7:50-52The ‘they’ here are the Pharisees and Sanhedrin members– those who were supposed to know Scriptures.Don’t just assume that because some ‘authority’or anyone else for that matter is quoting God’s Word,that they understand it or are using the quote correctly ...Check it for yourself !!
15 “No Prophet from Galilee?” In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel began to reign in Samaria, and reigned forty and one years. And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD: he departed not from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin.He restored the coast of Israel from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain, according to the word of the LORD God of Israel, which he spake by the hand of his servant Jonah, the son of Amittai, the prophet, which was of Gath-hepher.2 Kings 14: 23-25Jonah, a servant of the Lordfrom Gath Hepher, a town in the tribe of Zebuluncalled Gittahhepher in Josh 19:10-13(BTW: Nahum was also from Galilee.)
16 Gath-hepher [Gittah-hepher]: Meaning: wine-press of the well In lower Galilee, 4-5 miles N of Nazareth Lat: 32°44'30”N Lon: 35°19'30”EThe birthplace of Jonah (2 Kings 14:25); cf: (Josh. 19:13)It has been identified with the modern el-Meshed, a village on the top of a rocky hill.The supposed tomb of Jonahis still a ‘tourist spot’.Note: Tel-Aviv is ancient JoppaJaffa, Yafa [Yafo]. Joppa Heb. yapo, "beauty"
17 Jonah and friendsJonah’s ministry had some parallels to his immediate predecessors, who ministered to Israel and also were called to Gentile missions in Phoenicia and Aram:Elijah (1 Kgs 17-21; 2 Kgs 1-2 ) and Elisha (2 Kgs 2-9; 13)Jonah was a contemporary of Hosea and Amos(Hosea 1:1; Amos 1:1)He is one of only four Old Testament prophets whose ministries were specifically referred to by Christ (Mt 12:41; Lk 11:32)The others are: Elijah (Mt 17:11-12),Elisha (Lk 4:27), andIsaiah (Mt 15:7)Jonah is the only Old Testament prophetwho attempted to run from God.
18 Prophets and Kings Timeline Captivity of Judah32nd century33rd century34th century35th century904 BC804 BC704 BC604 BCHomerAesopHigh Priests: Azariah II Amariah Ahitub Ahitub II Zadok II Shallium HilkiahAhabAhaziahJoramJehuJehoahazJoashJeroboam IIMenahamPekahiahPekahHosheaAhazJothamHezekiahManassehAthaliahAmaziahUzziahAmonSolonSusannaNebuchadanezzarJosiahJehoiakimZedekiahSalathielDarius the MedeCyrus the PersianElijahElishaAmosHoseaNahumIsaiahMicahJoelJeremiahZephaniahHabakkukDanielEzekielObadiahHaggaiJonah10 Northern Tribes – Israel – taken captiveSennacherib’s army destroyedReignYearsKing (* Coregent)KingdomCharacterProphet-814-79817JehoahazIsrael (10 Tribes)BadJonah / Amos / Hosea-78216Jehoash-796-76729AmaziahJudah (& Benjamin)Good41Jeroboam II *-722xFall of Samaria (10 Northern Tribes) to Assyria-5869 Av - Babylonian Captivity
19 Jesus, Himself validated Jonah and his story: Jonah - in the 3rd personThe Book of Jonah is written in the 3rd person causing some believe that the book was written by someone other than Jonah very soon after the events took place.Moses, author of the Torah, the first 5 books of the Bible, often used the 3rd person when describing his own actions.Isaiah and Daniel sometimes wrote of themselves in the 3rd person.Jesus, Himself validated Jonah and his story:Matthew 12: 39-41Luke 11:29, 30, 32
20 ParadoxicallyNote the patience, longsuffering, and compassion of God versus the pride, selfishness, and hardheartedness of man.There seems to be a reproof of Israel:A heathen people repented at the first preaching of God’s prophet who was a stranger to them;Israel, boasted of being God’s elect but would not repent even though they were warned by their own prophets consistently for years.An anticipatory flash of light before the full “light to lighten the Gentiles” (Lk 2:32) appeared ??Jonah himself is a paradox:A prophet of God and a runaway from God:A man drowned and yet alive:A preacher of repentance who is repulsed by the repentance of those to whom he was preaching.Jonah was saved from the jaws of death when he repented.He, of all men, should have been best suited to deliver hope to Nineveh of God’s mercy on its repentance.
21 Whatever happened to that guy Jonah? God, to this point in history had rarely shown any real interest in any other nation besides Israel. But here He is so bothered by the sins of the city of Nineveh, He acts – not to destroy her but to try to save her. God moves to save a pagan gentile city.Scene 1: The opening:God's command and the beginning of Jonah's rebellion (1:1-3)Scene 2: In the storm-tossed ship:the sailors obedience and Jonahs continued rebellion (1:4-16)Scene 3: In the belly of the fish: thanks...(2:1-11)?Scene 4: The command, once more from the top:God repeats the command and Jonah submits (3:1-3a)Scene 5: In doomed Nineveh: the sinners' repentance (3:3b-10)Scene 6: In forgiven Nineveh: Jonah's rebellion returns (4:1-5)Scene 7: East of Nineveh: Jonah learns (4:6-11)
23 Jonah 1:1-61 The word of the LORD came to Jonah the son of Amittai saying,2 "Arise, go to Nineveh the great city and cry against it, for their wickedness has come up before Me."3 But Jonah rose up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the LORD. So he went down to Joppa, found a ship which was going to Tarshish, paid the fare and went down into it to go with them to Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.4 The LORD hurled a great wind on the sea and there was a great storm on the sea so that the ship was about to break up.5 Then the sailors became afraid and every man cried to his god, and they threw the cargo which was in the ship into the sea to lighten it for them. But Jonah had gone below into the hold of the ship, lain down and fallen sound asleep.6 So the captain approached him and said, "How is it that you are sleeping? Get up, call on your god. Perhaps your god will be concerned about us so that we will not perish."
24 Jonah 1:7-12Each man said to his mate, "Come, let us cast lots so we may learn on whose account this calamity has struck us." So they cast lots and the lot fell on Jonah.Then they said to him, "Tell us, now! On whose account has this calamity struck us? What is your occupation? And where do you come from? What is your country? From what people are you?"He said to them, "I am a Hebrew, and I fear the LORD God of heaven who made the sea and the dry land."Then the men became extremely frightened and they said to him, "How could you do this?" For the men knew that he was fleeing from the presence of the LORD, because he had told them.So they said to him, "What should we do to you that the sea may become calm for us?"--for the sea was becoming increasingly stormy.He said to them, "Pick me up and throw me into the sea. Then the sea will become calm for you, for I know that on account of me this great storm has come upon you."
25 Jonah 1:13-1713 However, the men rowed desperately to return to land but they could not, for the sea was becoming even stormier against them.14 Then they called on the LORD and said, "We earnestly pray, O LORD, do not let us perish on account of this man's life and do not put innocent blood on us; for You, O LORD, have done as You have pleased."15 So they picked up Jonah, threw him into the sea, and the sea stopped its raging.16 Then the men feared the LORD greatly, and they offered a sacrifice to the LORD and made vows.17 And the LORD appointed a great fish to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was in the stomach of the fish three days and three nights.
26 Jonah 1:1-2 The Call, the Crime, the Cry The word of the Lord came to Jonah son of Amittai:2 "Go to the great city Nineveh and preach against it, because its wickedness has come up before me." [TNIV]The Call: Arise, go…The Crime: Not living right >> WickednessThe Cry: Jonah’s Message:"Yet forty days and Nineveh will be overthrown.“Jonah 3:4
27 Are you listening? “God’s calling…” If we are going to hear God, we need to be listening for Him.When God speaks, we need to obey – right away.What and how God does what He does is His business.Getting in line with what He is doing, is our business.It’s a Plan with a Purpose and a Prize.Ephes. 2:10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.Philip. 3:14 I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.Salvation is freebut it comes with rewards for running a good race.God rewards righteousness: right living …
28 “Take a message” … Jonah’s plan: “Get Nineveh” – to punish them God’s plan: “Get Nineveh” – to recover themGod’s plan did not match Jonah’s religion,It didn’t fit Jonah’s theology…Jonah 4:2 … "Isn't this what I said, Lord, when I was still at home? That is what I tried to forestall by fleeing to Tarshish. I knew that you are a gracious and compassionate God, slow to anger and abounding in love, a God who relents from sending calamity. [TNIV]
29 God said go, Jonah said no… Why not go ???1] Selective service: If your commander says go and you say No, I’d rather do something elseAre you really even in the army2] Fearsome faith: Faith in failure rather than Faith in the Father;Fear is Faith in the wrong things3] Hide and Seek: Distancing myself from the place of responsibility thinking that I will no longer be responsibleThe attempt just proves I am irresponsible4] I’ll do it my way: Blinded by our own brillianceMy plan must be better than His…5] Strange Change: Fear that, the closer you get to God’s will,the weirder you will get; that you’ll go ‘strange’
30 God of the 2nd chanceLuke 15:4 "What man among you, if he has a hundred sheep and has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture and go after the one which is lost until he finds it?Notice how God continues to come at you, even when you run:Silence: Jonah 3:1 Most often God is silent because He’s already spoken and we’ve ignored what He has already said…Storms: Jonah 1:4 Stuff happens – every thing seems to be going wrong. God sends storms too...Saints There always seems to be someone who recognizes you as one just as you are about to do a wrong thing.Sinners: Jonah 1:6-8 Someone is always asking us embarrassing questions or those whose actions and attitudes offend us. They reflect our own stubbornness and unrighteousness.“…who is responsible for making all this trouble for us? What kind of work do you do? Where do you come from? What is your country? From what people are you?" [TNIV]
31 Jonah – Peace, the son of Truth "Jonah" means "dove".In the Bible, a dove generally symbolizes peace.First mention of a dove: Gen 8:8; bringing message of blessing … a dove with an olive branch sent out by Noah. It returns with a branch from an olive tree!In the Bible, a dove is also an animal of sacrifice.Jonah is portrayed as a "sacrifice" when he is ‘sacrificed’ to save the sailors.Jonah is the "son of Amittai".Amittai comes from the root word "Amet" which means "truth"Jonah, the whose name symbolizes peace and compassion is also the son of truth.
32 God save the king … Say What? Why?? Jonah is mentioned one other time in the OT - 2 Kings 14:23-2723 …. Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel became king in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years He did evil in the sight of the LORD; he did not depart from all the sins of Jeroboam … He restored the border of Israel from the entrance of Hamath as far as the Sea of the Arabah, according to the word of the LORD, the God of Israel, which He spoke through His servant Jonah the son of Amittai, the prophet, who was of Gath-hepher….Jeroboam II was an evil king, yet he reigned longer and prospered more than any other king in the history of the Kingdom of Israel.God through Jonah promises evil King Jeroboam II that under his rule the Northern Kingdom's borders (Israel) would reach further than they had ever reached before (from "Lebo-hamath to the sea of Arabah")!There is no evidence of any repentance on the part of the people of Israel nor of Jeroboam II during this time.
33 Jonah – Been there, Done that … In this prophecy to Jeroboam II, God used Jonah to prophesy a HUGE blessing on a very wicked people.God blessed them, not because they repented, but because of His characterHe had given His word, made a promise and He would keep it.He bestowed His grace (undeserved favor) and mercy (judgment withheld) on them.He is longsuffering with the wicked, not anxious the any should perish.How do you suppose this grace and mercy by God in the face of gross evil and rebellion affected Jonah?How do you expect that he would have responded when asked to prophesy / preach for God in evil Nineveh?Can you understand his reaction when Israel’s evil enemy repented and God relented?
34 Israel has a past … Abraham to Egypt The nation of Israel traces its roots back to Abraham.God promises to make Abraham into a great nation and also promises to give him a particular land.Israel continues to grow as a nation and through Isaac and Jacob.Jacob's favorite son Joseph is sold into slavery by his brothers and ends up in Egypt.Through a series of “fortunate” events, Joseph rises to power in Egypt, and is eventually joined in Egypt by his father Jacob and his ten brothers.They went into Egypt a familyThe "12 tribes of Israel" are made up of Jacob's “12 sons and 2 grandsons”. These tribes grow numerically in Egypt until finally, the Egyptians feel threatened by them and enslave them.
35 Israel has a past … Egypt to Solomon Eventually, God delivers Israel from the oppression of the Egyptians by His prophet Moses.Israel went in a family, came out a nation.The Israelites wander in the desert for 40 years because of their disbelief, and finally, under Joshua, enter the promised land.The Israelites spend years trying to subdue the CanaanitesEventually, they ask God to give them a king to rule over them so they can be like other nations. (Attempting to be relevant to the world rather than separate and different from it).God allows Israel to have a king.Israel is a united country under three kings: Saul, David, and Solomon.Under Solomon, Israel reaches the height of her power.
36 Israel has a past … Solomon to Civil War When Solomon dies, there is a struggle for power and the country divides into two kingdoms:the Southern Kingdom is called Judah andthe Northern Kingdom is called Israel.The Southern Kingdom is called "Judah" because when the division happened, Judah was the first tribe to follow king Rehoboam who was from the line of David and Solomon (Benjamin then joined them).The Northern Kingdom is called "Israel" because it’s territory was the territory of the other 10 tribes (the majority) followed king Jeroboam who was not from the line of David and Solomon.The nation of Israel stayed divided into the two kingdoms of "Judah" and "Israel" for virtually the rest of their existence.Given the idolatry of the Northern Kingdom, the tribe of Levi and many from the other 9 tribes migrated south to the territory of Judah.Idol worshippers from Judah and Benjamin migrated north to Israel.
37 Israel and Assyria – They have a history… God sent both Hosea and Amos to warn of His impending judgment if Israel did not repent…Amos warned that God would send Israel “into exile beyond Damascus” (Amos 5:27).Hosea specifically delineated the ravaging captor as Assyria: “Will not Assyria rule over them because they refuse to repent?” (Hosea 11:5).These prophecies were fulfilled in 722 BC when Sargon II carried the northern Kingdom – Israel - into captivity (2 Kgs 17).This may explain Jonah’s reluctance to preach in Nineveh:Jonah may have feared he would be used to help the enemy that would later destroy his own nation.Any patriotic Israelite would have longed for Assyria’s destruction!
38 Israel has a past … Civil War to Captivity to Return or not… In 722 BC the Assyrians destroyed the Northern Kingdom of IsraelIt’s people were assimilated among other peoples and nations and never again was re-established as an independent nation.The people who resettled the territory of the former Northern Kingdom of Israel following the end of the captivity were mixed bloods and not pure Hebrews. They became known as the ‘Samaritans’, taking the name of the region they resettled.The Southern Kingdom ("Judah") was destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BC.Following the end of the captivity, the people who returned and resettled the territory of Judah, the former Southern Kingdom, had maintained the purity of their Hebrew lineage while in captivity.
39 Israel – Jeroboam II and Jonah Jonah lived in the Northern Kingdom ("Israel"), where all the kings were wicked, during the reign of Jeroboam II ( B.C.) (2 Kings 14:25).Jeroboam II was northern Israel’s most powerful king,During his reign the borders of Israel were expanded to their greatest extent since the time of David and Solomon.God sent Jonah to Jeroboam II to deliver God’s Word that Israel’s boundaries would extend under Jeroboam’s rule.After defeating the Arameans, the Assyrians suffered a temporary decline because of internal dissension.Israel’s Jeroboam was able to expand his nation’s territories to their greatest extent since the time of David and Solomon by occupying land that formerly belonged to Aram (northeast toward Damascus and north to Hamath).
40 Assyria – They have a history… Assyria first comes on the scene in B.C.The Assyrian Empire emerges under Tiglath-pileser I around 1100 B.C.Assyria comes into real contact with Israel in the mid-800's(probably during the rule of Omri and Jehu).The Assyrians had established supremacy in the Near East and received tribute from Israel’s King Jehu.
41 Assyria – They have a history… During the rule of Omri and Jehu, the Assyrian kings are known for their ruthlessness with their enemies."Records brag of live dismemberment, often leaving one hand attached so they could shake it before the person died. They made parades of heads, requiring friends of the deceased to carry them elevated on poles. They boasted of their practice of stretching live prisoners with ropes so they could be skinned alive. The human skins were then displayed on city walls and on poles. They commissioned pictures of their post-battle tortures where piles of heads, hands and feet, and heads impaled on poles - eight heads to a stake - were displayed. They pulled out the tongues and testicles of live victims and burned the young alive“ (Jonah, James Bruckner).When you treat enemies this way... the word spreads!Not a place to visit…Not a place to threaten with destruction…
42 Assyria – They have a history… During Jonah’s day Assyria was again on the rise to world power under Tiglath-pileser IIAssyria was five hundred miles to the east, but it was still a constant threat to Israel.Due to Israel’s progressive rebellion, Hosea and Amos, contemporaries of Jonah, had declared that Jehovah would use Assyria as an instrument of punishment against His people (Hosea 11:5; Amos 5:27).Assyria was at the time in a temporary decline but it would eventually awaken like a sleeping giant and devour the Northern Kingdom of Israel as its prey.
43 Assyria – They have a history… In 722 BC the Assyrians swept down on and overran the Northern Kingdom of Israel.The Assyrians battered down the walls of Samaria, Israel’s capital, and took the people away, resettling them away from the Promised Land.Isaiah contains many passages that foretell Assyria’s doom(cf. Isa 10:5-19; 17:12-14; 18:4-6; 30:27-33; 37:21-35; Hos 4 -14"Assyria" itself is never mentioned by name in the book of Jonah, only it’s prominent capital city, Nineveh.
44 What are you thinking ?Jonah’s heart must have been filled with consternation and anger when he received the Lord’s instruction to go to evil Nineveh, the capital city of enemy Assyria, with a divine message.Jonah’s brief declaration to Nineveh was one of judgment,Jonah knew that Jehovah is a “gracious God, and merciful, slow to anger, and abundant in loving kindness” (Jonah 4:2).It was certain that if the inhabitants of that great city responded to his message, God would spare them.Jonah did not want that so, Jonah didn’t want to go.Jonah ran, but he was not running scared.
45 But, Jonah knew repentance and mercy might be a possible outcome. Mercy !! Me ?? Nineveh ??The Ninevites were evil people.They practiced perverted sex acts in their worship of idols.Nineveh was known to be a bloody city with a reputation for the horrible things its inhabitants did to other human beings.Jonah wanted vengeance - not mercy for them.They didn’t deserve mercy …That’s what made Jonah so angry.Mercy is not receiving the justice we actually deserve.God is merciful, not treating us as our sinfulness deserves.When God told Jonah that He wanted him to go deliver a message to the Ninevites, it was a message of warningBut, Jonah knew repentance and mercy might be a possible outcome.
46 Nineveh – Nimrod’s hometown Nineveh means “the residence of Ninus,” that is, Nimrod, Nineveh’s founder.+ Babylon+ Nineveh+ UrBaghdad +Mosul +Gen 10:11-12, where the translation ought to be,“He (Nimrod) went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh.”To go there from Galilee would require a journey of a month or so if Jonah traveled the normal miles a day.
48 Nimrod is the prototype of a rebellious people. Way to go, Nimrod !!Nimrod was Noah’s great-grandson,He was the son of Cush, the son of Ham.He’s the first one the Bible calls "a mighty one“; "a mighty warrior“.The beginning of his kingdom was "Babel".He organized the attempt to become like God by building a great tower reaching to the heavens.He was the beginning of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires.Some connect Nimrod to the Babylonian hero-god Gilgamesh or Marduk.Nimrod’s name is interpreted "he who made all the people rebellious against God".He was a notable rebel toward God, a vicious and evil man…Nimrod is the prototype of a rebellious people.You can find him in Genesis 10
49 Nineveh Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian Empire, It was located east of the Tigris River about 500 miles northeast of Galilee.Nineveh was made a royal city in Assyria by Shalmaneser I in B.C.While it was not always the capital city, it always was a place of importance.Nineveh dominated Palestine and much of the ancient world from around 930 to 612 BC competing with Egypt in the south.Nineveh reached the height of its glory under Sennacherib around 701 B.C.It remained a "great city" until the fall of Assyria in 625 B.C.It was completely destroyed by around 610 B.C.
50 Nineveh was still ascending to the height of her "greatness". During the time of Jonah, Nineveh would have been a large important city, second in size only to BabylonNineveh was still ascending to the height of her "greatness".Like Babylon, Nineveh was protected by both an outer and an inner wall:The inner wall was 50 feet wide and 100 feet high;3 chariots abreast could race on the top of the wall.It had 1200 towers, each 200 ft high.The outer wall was 60+ miles in circumferenceThe population of 600,000 was supported crops grown between the walls
51 Nineveh’s end - NahumThe book of Nahum talks about the destruction of Nineveh in some detail.The ancient historian, Diodorus Siculus, reports that the Khosr River, which ran through the city flooded, broke down the floodgates and part of the wall which allowed the enemy to come inThis is in some way a fulfillment of Nah 1:8, 2:6 and 3:14Nahum 3:15 suggests that Nineveh will be destroyed by fire.Archeological evidence suggests this is true.
52 Jonah 1:1 The Word of the Lord… 1] Now the word of the LORD came unto Jonah the son of Amittai, saying,How the "word of the Lord" came to Jonah we don't know!We are just told that God did speak to Jonahwith the instruction to Arise!The "word of the LORD" came to different prophets in different ways.Sometimes it came as thunderSometimes it came in a dream or a visionSometimes it came as a voice, a whisperSometimes it came as a thought or prompting, an ideaSometimes it cane as a theophany
53 Jonah 1:2 Great !!2] Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.“Great”:“great city” Jonah 1:2; 3:2; 4:11“great wind” 1:4“great storm” 1:12“greatly feared” 1:16“great fish” 1:17“greatly displeased” 4:1“very [‘greatly’] happy” 4:6
54 Jonah 1:2 The Crime: Wickedness 2] Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me."come up before me" the language God used before the flood and Sodom and Gomorrah’s destruction (Genesis 6:5; 18:21).Jon 3:8 But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.Nah 3:1 Woe to the bloody city! it is all full of lies and robbery; the prey departeth not; 2 The noise of a whip, and the noise of the rattling of the wheels, and of the pransing horses, and of the jumping chariots. 3 The horseman lifteth up both the bright sword and the glittering spear: and there is a multitude of slain, and a great number of carcases; and there is none end of their corpses; they stumble upon their corpses:These passages seem to indicate this wickedness was ViolenceViolence against one another (not necessarily against conquered enemies, which was extreme but against each otherThis is similar to the wickedness that provoked God to judge the earth with the flood (Gen 6:11)
55 All creation is subject to the Creator’s law. Your rules, not oursAncient peoples who were outside of that Mosaic covenant relationship with Jehovah were nonetheless accountable to Heaven’s moral law.Jehovah looked down upon Nineveh and observed the wickedness of this people (Jonah 1:2).Since sin is the transgression of divine law (1 John 3:4;Rom 4:15),The Ninevites were obviously subject to it (Rom 1:18-19).This powerful truth is in direct conflict with the modern theory which contends that those who are “outside of the church” arenot subject to the law of God.The purpose of wrong headed concept is to justify self, pride and our failure to submit to God, still demanding our own way.All creation is subject to the Creator’s law.
56 Jonah 1:2 God said go, Jonah said Oh… Jonah will be used to BLESS the wicked again ...First Jeroboam and now Nineveh.This was just too much for Jonah.The way God was acting didn't fit Jonah's theology.Prophets were people used by God to tell bad people to change..."or else".To his mind, Jonah's experience did NOT line up with the way things were supposed to be – or so he thought…
57 Jonah 1:2 God said go, Jonah said No… Jonah didn’t hesitate:Not to take a few days to discuss it with my family.What advice could they give better than God’s instruction?Not to take a few days to pray about itWho would Jonah pray to – God gave him the order!God’s instruction – His commands – are not suggestions.They are not for debating but obeying.PROBLEM !!!Jonah didn’t go, He said, NoJonah went his own way. He ran – left town…
58 Jonah 1:2 God said go, Jonah said no… God needed to change Jonah before he could use Jonah to ‘get’ (change) Nineveh.The message Jonah finally delivered (in malicious obedience) was:"Yet forty days and Nineveh will be overthrown." Jonah 3:4No mercy, just a proclamation of judgment against the most wicked, evil nation on earth.I’m not sure that was God’s full message for Nineveh, but…God used it anyway…What do you do with your call– you have one and it carries a better messageMatthew 28: And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.  Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:  Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
59 Jonah 1:3 Can’t talk now! I gotta’ run… To avoid possibly carrying God’s saving message to Nineveh, Jonah went to Joppa.His plan and purpose was to try to flee from the presence of Jehovah (1:3).He really thought he could run away and hide from God.In Joppa (modern Jaffa), he boarded a ship bound for Tarshish,Tarshish was a Phoenician colony on the southwest coast of Spain (possible, probably even in modern Britain) some 2,000-2,500 miles to the west.Jonah’s plans were soon thwarted.Where men propose, God can dispose!
60 Jonah 1:3 You can run but you can not hide. 3] But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.Nineveh was the kind of place you would pray for God to destroyJonah knew that was not God’s plan and to Jonah’s mind that was not right.Jonah 4:2 He prayed to the Lord, "O Lord, is this not what I said when I was still at home? That is why I was so quick to flee to Tarshish. I knew that you are a gracious and compassionate God, slow to anger and abounding in love, a God who relents from sending calamity.
61 Jonah 1:3 Joppa3] But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.Instead of traveling northeast, he fled west by sea.Joppa was the nearest seaport to the central part of Palestine, about 35 miles (a 2-3 day journey) from Samaria.Jonah boarded a ship at Joppa (modern Jaffa) on Israel’s coast,In ancient times, Joppa was one of the few places along the eastern coastline of the Mediterranean Sea where a port could be established(cf. I Kgs 5:9; 2 Chr 2:16).
62 Jonah 1:3 to flee from the presence of the LORD... 3] But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.God said, "Arise and go" but Jonah "rose up to flee".If you get into the "PROPHECY BUSINESS" (as Rabbi Fohrman calls it) you are expected to do what God says!Our presumption is that God told Jonah what to "cry out" against Nineveh.Jonah's experience so far with "the prophecy business" is the unique role of a prophet that brings good news to bad people instead of what most prophets did ... bring bad news to bad people ?!?!
63 Jonah 1:3 to flee from the presence of the LORD... 3] But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD."from the presence of the LORD" = mentioned at the beginning and at the end of verse 3.Did Jonah think he could do it?Do you actually think you can run from the presence of the Lord?Jon 2:4 Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple.Jon 2:7 When my soul fainted within me I remembered the LORD: and my prayer came in unto thee, into thine holy temple.Somehow in Jonah’s mind, he equated God’s presence with the Temple as some of us do today with the church building …Not so then, not so now !!!You can’t outrun God by going and staying far away …
64 A Travelogue Are we there yet? How much farther? From Gath-hepher (Jonah’s home town) in Galilee, about 4 miles from Nazareth, it was a 35 mile journey to Joppa in Samaria – about 2, possibly 3 days(From Joppa to Jerusalem in Judea it was another 35 miles or so.)From Joppa to Tarshish in the far west beyond Gibralter it could take a year by boat.From Gath-hepher (Jonah’s home town) in Galilee to Nineveh, where God said to go, it was about 450 miles – about 30 to 35 days
65 no matter which direction we happen to think we are traveling. Regardless the direction on your moral compass, you are really traveling in only one of two directions, either toward or away from God…There are several "descents" in the first chapter of Jonah.Jonah sets out and goes DOWN to Joppa, finds a ship heading for Tarshish, pays the fare (must've been expensive),Then Jonah goes DOWN into the ship (the NIV misses this nuance; the NASB gets it).In verse 5, Jonah goes DOWN into the hold of the ship.Jonah is cast DOWN into the seaJonah is carried DOWN into deep in the belly of the "great fish".Jonah's horizontal journey (west away from Nineveh) actually caused him to travel vertically in a descent away from God who dwells on "high"When we rebel against God...when our heart is captured by something or someone else...the result is a DOWNWARD spiral,no matter which direction we happen to think we are traveling.
66 Jonah 1:3 Tarshish3] But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.Jonah attempted to go as far as he conceivably could go in the opposite direction.Tarshish was a distant port from which silver, iron, tin, lead, ivory, monkeys and peacocks were brought to Israel(1 Kgs 10:22; Jer 10:9; Ezek 27:12).From Akkadian: rašašu, “to be smelted.”Situated “beyond the Pillars of Hercules”: beyond the Mediterranean (beyond Gibralter) … (Herodotus 4:152),
67 Jonah 1:3 Tarshish3] But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.Tarshish is commonly associated with Tartessus, ancient Phoenician town of the Guadalquivir River valley in southwestern Spain.If there, it may have been near present-day Seville;It prospered by trade with the Phoenicians and CarthaginiansIt was probably destroyed by the Carthaginians about 500BCTarshish has also been described as an island - which Spain is not…Where ever it was, it was accessible from Israelonly by a sea journey over 1 year in length.i
68 Jonah 1:3 Tarshish3] But Jonah rose up to flee unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD, and went down to Joppa; and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them unto Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.Among other things, Tarshish was a key source of tin.Tin was exported from Cornwall, England to Europe in large quantities during the Roman period.“Britannia metal” was an alloy- approx 93% tin, 5% antimony, and 2% copper.It was used to make various utensils - teapots, jugs, drinking vessels, candlesticks, urns, etc, and for official maces.Similar in color to pewter, “britannia metal” is harder, stronger, and easier to work than other tin alloys.Global commerce from Britain has been confirmed by archeological discoveries at Stonehenge (1500 B.C.)i
71 Ships of TarshishTarshish had strong ships capable of long voyages (Isa 60:9).The large Phoenician ships conducting trade with remote islands become an idiom for all such sea-going vessels, rather than simply a denotative place name… (2 Chr 20:36; Isa 23:1-14; 1 Kgs 10:22; 22:49).A proof of the power of YHWH - He breaks the ships of Tarshish with an east wind Ps 48:7Are among the lofty objects of power which the terror of the Lord would overtake Isa 2:16They were the caravans that bore the merchandise of the “mistress of the sea” Ezek 27:25In ships of Tarshish the prophet sees the exiles borne in crowds to Jerusalem Isa 60:9
72 Why don’t we go to our Nineveh? Reasons and Excuses 1] No thanks, I’d rather do something else…Will you teach? Be a greeter? Library? Sing? Nursery?Selective service !!! You joined God’s army…If the commander says go and you say no– are you even in the army2] More fear than faithNineveh (current Iraq) had mastered the fine art of filleting people and the worst sorts of torture3] Removing myself from the place of responsibility thinking I am no longer responsibleA cat, an ostrich and an infant hides his face to avoid danger and trouble.The attempt to remove yourself from responsibility just proves you are irresponsible – immature…
73 Why don’t we go to our Nineveh? Reasons and Excuses 4] Blinded by the truth – our will must be better than his…Don’t attend missionary lessons just in case at the meeting God could call me to go somewhere I do want to beI have my summer already planned out Lord – check back with me next fall, I’ll see if I can squeeze you in then.Fear that the closer you get to God’s will the weirder you will get; that you’ll go ‘strange’So – it’s better for me to run from Him.Running doesn’t always involve distance.Sometimes it’s a matter of involvement.Run from Him? The God who is all knowing and all seeing!We’re going to run from Him? Where are we going to go ???Often when you run from God – you run to church…I’m so busy already, I can’t do / go where you want…
74 Jonah 1:4-5 The Tempest; A Great Storm 4] But the LORD sent out a great wind into the sea, and there was a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship was like to be broken. 5] Then the mariners were afraid, and cried every man unto his god, and cast forth the wares that were in the ship into the sea, to lighten it of them. But Jonah was gone down into the sides of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep.The principal person in the narrative is God, not Jonah, not Nineveh.God sovereignly prepared various events in the story to accomplish His plan and purposes, He overcame Jonah’s rebellion and opened the Ninevites’ hearts.The seasoned mariners were afraid … this was not a “normal” storm. [Cf. Acts 27…]
75 Jonah 1:4-5 God hates sin… but loves both Jonah and Nineveh… 4 Then the LORD sent a great wind on the sea, and such a violent storm arose that the ship threatened to break up. 5 All the sailors were afraid and each cried out to his own god. And they threw the cargo into the sea to lighten the ship.The word "sent" is better translated "cast" or "hurl"Casting / Hurling things is a common theme throughout this section of the story...The ESV has the most consistent translation.God casts the wind on the sea,The sailors cast cargo into the sea to lighten the load of the ship andJonah, in response to the sailors, tells them to cast him into the sea. Jonah 1:4, 5, & 15
76 Jonah 1:5 Rocked to Sleep5] …. But Jonah was gone down into the sides of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep.Not every man cried out to his God …Jonah went down to hide, to try sleep …The sailors are doing everything they can to save their lives!!!!They are frantically throwing cargo into the sea, andCrying out to their gods to save them!Jonah goes down into the hold of the ship and falls into a deep sleep.Jonah is in a cargo ship that is about to break apart in a violet storm that has the pro’s terrified, and yet ... he's in a DEEP SLEEP!
77 How different Jesus’ sleep on the Sea of Galilee! (Mk 4:37-39) Jonah 1:6 What can I say ?6 The captain went to him and said, "How can you sleep? Get up and call on your god! Maybe he will take notice of us, and we will not perish."There is NO RECORD that Jonah ever prayed while on the ship.Jonah, the only person on the ship who knew the one true and living God is being rebuked by a pagan and can't bring himself to even pray to his God.By sleeping, Jonah was not necessarily being complacent and insensitive.Neither was his sleep proof of his innocence;It may have been the effect of a carnal security,a seared conscience, a resignation to one’s fate, an escape from fear and mental anguish…How different Jesus’ sleep on the Sea of Galilee! (Mk 4:37-39)
78 Jonah 1:6 All Hands (and feet) On Deck 6] So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, O sleeper? arise, call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.The Captain of the ship, needing ALL hands on deck, comes and finds Jonah.He wakes Jonah and rebukes him: "HOW CAN YOU SLEEP?!?!" He is incredulous !!!He probably included a few sailor type "bleeps" in his words to Jonah!He then tells Jonah to at least pray to his god (like the pagan sailors are doing) in hopes that perhaps Jonah's god will hear him and save them.
79 Storms, Sinners, Saint, Silence Try to avoid Him and God will send storms, saints and sinners.When you are running from God notice how often you hear ‘the word’ from God coming at you from all directionsStorms - Stuff happens – every thing goes wrong – life hits the fan – you hit every red light, the cell phone battery dies – Satan is attacking dumping trouble upon trouble upon you…We respond by ‘rebuking this day ‘in Jesus name’I’ve got news – it ain’t always Satan, it just may be God.Jesus is watching your actions, saying its me pal…heads up, get back into line…I sent the storm to get your attention!Saints – ever notice there always seems to be a Christian or someone who recognizes you as one just as you are about to do a wrong thing.It’s amazing…the convenience store, the video store, the grocery, the lottery desk, at work, at home …
80 Storms, Sinners, Saint, Silence Sinners – flipping channels, you see something that just sets your righteous indignation into the red zone.You think, “God! You gotta’ do something about this, this is wrong.”His response: “What are you doing watching it..why aren’t you doing what I asked you to do?” Sleeper, Arise and go– same message from the pagan captain as from God.Silence – God suddenly seems far off and unapproachable, uninterested. You wonder, where He is, where He went. Why doesn’t He respond…When God seems silent – most often its because He has already spoken and you’ve ignored what He said…
81 Jonah 1:7 Win the Lottery and you lose 7 And they said to one another, "Come, let us cast lots, that we may know on whose account this evil has come upon us." So they cast lots, and the lot fell on Jonah.The sailors on the vessel feared for their very lives.Being superstitious idol worshippers, they cast lots to determine which person on board was the reason the strom had come upon them.The lot fell on Jonah.Jonah confessed that he, as a refugee from the Lord, was the cause of the calamity and said that it would only abate if they threw him overboard.Though the sailors did not like the idea, they ultimately were forced to accept Jonah’s suggestion that he be thrown overboard.
82 Jonah 1:7 Lottery – The Winner Loses. 7] And they said every one to his fellow, Come, and let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this evil is upon us. So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah.The casting of lots was an accepted method of decision making because it was "viewed as divinely guided" (Prv 16:33; Act 1:12-26)Sin of Achan Josh 7:16Division of Land Josh 15:1Assigning inheritances Num 26:55; 34:13Selecting men for expedition Judg 1:1; 20:10Electing a king 1Sam 10:20Jonathan’s trespass 1Sam 14:36fMatthias Acts 1:26Goats Lev 16:8Cities of Refuge 1 Chr 5:24Urim & Thummim Ex28:30(No examples of casting lots after Pentecost…)
83 Jonah 1:8 I’ve Got a Secret !! 8] Then said they unto him, Tell us, we pray thee,for whose cause this evil is upon us;What is thine occupation? andwhence comest thou?what is thy country? andof what people art thou?The sailors’ fire a barrage of five questions:Who is the cause of this evil that is come on us?What do you do for a living?Where are you coming from?What nationality are you? andWho are your people?All practical questions that the world is asking today?
84 Jonah 1:9 Liar ! Liar !!9] And he said unto them, I am an Hebrew; and I fear the LORD, the God of heaven, which hath made the sea and the dry land.A Hebrew – True ! I fear the Lord – False !“God of heaven … which … made the sea” – True !(accounting for the tempest sent on the sea.)The heathen had distinct gods for the heaven, the sea, and the land.Jehovah is the one and only true God, the creator of all of them.Though disobedient to God, Jonah at least knew what God is like.God is the Lord,the covenant-making and covenant-keeping God of Israel,the God of heaven,the one true Sovereign,the Creator,the One who made the sea and the land in contrast with the sailors’ many false gods (Jonah 1:5).The God of grace and mercy (Jonah 4:2)The sailors acknowledged this by their subsequent question (Jnh 1:11).
85 Jonah 1:9 When even the truth is a lie !! Jonah 1:9 He answered, "I am a Hebrew and I worship the Lord, the God of heaven, who made the sea and the dry land." [TNIV]– LIAR !! – What did Jonah’s life say about his words?Lu 6:46 …why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I sayGod had to deal with Jonah before He could use Jonah to deal with the sin of Nineveh.1 Peter 4:17 For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God?When God calls, Arise and go…1 Cor 9:24 Do you not know that those who run in a race all run, but only one receives the prize? Run in such a way that you may win.1 Cor 6: What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own? For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's.
86 Listen, Arise, and Go … God has a plan for your life … follow it. The issues of life…Society’s issues may be because:We are not living righteously enough to have the right to tell the world to repent– or –We haven’t been clear enough, distinct enough to differentiate between right and wrong to allow the world to look at us and choose one way or the other.A Christian more than anyone should care – care enough to act.But, how should we act? What can we do?Listen, Arise, and Go … God has a plan for your life … follow it.
87 Dead Man Walking …For most of us, God has already spoken and we are running away, ignoring Him, or have forgotten what He said.We work to fulfill our lives, to make ourselves relevant, trying every new thing that comes along when what we need is to obey,To Serve God … Just Do It !!If the ship of sailors is the world,If we are typical of Jonah who sleeps while the world around us is perishingThen we need to do what Jonah did– offer ourselves to God – a living sacrifice, with a renewed mind,– No longer be conformed to the world but be transformed by His Spirit and presence with renewed minds and thinking– urgently taking the difference He has made in our lives to the world as a walking, talking, living ‘before and after’ picture.We need to repent – go the other direction – get inline with God’s known will and as far as the world is concerned, die to ourselves.
88 Dead Man Walking …As far as the world was concerned, Jonah was dead – but he wasn’t!He was in a place God had prepared and appointed for him,to allow him to straighten out his thinking and attitudeso he could do the thing God had appointed him to do in the first place.The Lord sent Jonah to school for three days and the classroom was the belly of a great sea-creature.Down he went into the dark depths of the Mediterranean, seaweed swirling about his head (cf. 2:5).Soon he was devoured by a great creature of the deep.The prophet graduated with a diploma in “mission responsibility”!
89 Help, I Need Somebody …The world is coming to us, crying out for those of us who know God to do something, to help them out of the situation they are in– what will our response be…Don’t be a broken flashlight– God wants you to shine at work, at home, while you shop, in all things whatever you do glorify God before men.Don’t tell those you care about how great Bethel is– tell them how great God is and– tell them how dangerous it is to run from and ignore HimTake them to the cross…let them leave their sin there.
90 Jonah 1:9 Liar ! Liar !!9] And he said unto them, I am an Hebrew; and I fear the LORD, the God of heaven, which hath made the sea and the dry land.Jonah loved God for salvation but not serviceWe want to avoid Hell and gain HeavenJust don’t ask me to change or do anything in the meantime.We’re not really in God’s army. We’re mercenaries - sold out to the highest bidder.When we are exposed…The world asks us what shall we do?But…It’s our problem, not theirs.2 Chr 7:14 If my people, which are called by my name, shallA] humble themselves,B] and pray,C] and seek my face,D] and turn from their wicked ways;then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin,and will heal their land.
91 Mirrors are available for self inspection !! ... Jonah 1:10 What Did You Do ???10] Then were the men exceedingly afraid, and said unto him, Why hast thou done this? For the men knew that he fled from the presence of the LORD, because he had told them.The storm is not the fault of the sinful world but is the fault of God’s servant who carries His name…Often we are the reason for the storms – we are responsible“What have you done?” is more an exclamation of horror at his disobedience than a question.The pagan sailors seemed to grasp the seriousness of his disobedience more than Jonah the prophet did!Jonah claimed to worship his God but he did not obey Him.Mirrors are available for self inspection !! ...
92 Jonah 1:11 A Blank Check…11] So they said to him, "What should we do to you that the sea may become calm for us?"-- for the sea was becoming increasingly stormy.Here it is...Jonah's chance to recover the situation.The sailors are ready to do WHATEVER he tells them if it will save their lives but:instead of turning the boat around and submitting himself to God...instead of letting all of them die in the storm...Jonah tells them to throw him into the sea.
93 Jonah 1:11 A Blank Check…12] And he said unto them, Take me up, and cast me forth into the sea; so shall the sea be calm unto you: for I know that for my sake this great tempest is upon you.Jonah chooses certain death for HIMSELF, but life for the pagan sailors.Willing to save the lives of the pagan sailors, Jonah would rather DIE than go to Nineveh in an effort to save the pagan AssyriansThe prophet, who refused to preach to a pagan gentile city, prophecies his own death as the way to salvation for the pagan gentile sailors.
94 Jonah 1:11 I Give Up …12] And he said unto them, Take me up, and cast me forth into the sea; so shall the sea be calm unto you: for I know that for my sake this great tempest is upon you.Jonah – surrendered himself – dying to self if you willWant family to be right– You get right with God and live doing what He has asked.Want you relationship with God to become precious– listen to Him, live in a way that recognizes He is there and has a plan for your life – a plan for good, not evil –Begin to experience the abundant life He promised.It is the reward for living rightly…If you are not where God wants you, doing what He wants you to do, everywhere else become a boat to Tarshish, sinking as it fights its way through the storm…and you will always have to pay the price just as Jonah paid the fare to Tarshish…
95 Jonah 1:12 Let’s Not Go Overboard 12] And he said unto them, Take me up, and cast me forth into the sea; so shall the sea be calm unto you: for I know that for my sake this great tempest is upon you.“...cast me … into the sea”:Jonah is a type of Messiah, the one man who offered Himself to die in order to allay the stormy flood of God’s wrath (Ps 69:1-2), which otherwise must have engulfed all other men.Caiaphas declared it expedient that one man should die, and that the whole nation should not perish (Jn 11:50).Jonah is also a example of true repentance,True Repentance leads the penitent to “accept the punishment of his iniquity” (Lev 26:41, 43); to be more indignant at his sin than at his suffering.
96 Jonah 1:13 Row Harder !!13] Nevertheless the men rowed hard to bring it to the land; but they could not: for the sea wrought, and was tempestuous against them.Instead of throwing Jonah into the sea, killing him, the sailors, in desperation (and mercy) attempt to row back to land to save the life of this man who has jeopardized their lives.The attempt fails ! The sailors’ meager efforts brought no relief.In fact, the storm intensified.How often do we simply try to “row harder”?There is a way that seems right, but its end in death…Prov 14:12 ; 16:25But, there’s only one way!
97 Jonah 1:13 The Running Man… Jonah not having done what he should– the sailors only option was to pull for shore… without successOur efforts are never enough by themselves.Our best efforts are like “used menstrual cloths” (Isa 64:6).We must not walk after the flesh (Rom 8:3,4) but by the Spirit (Titus 3:5; Rom 4:5);“Yet saved as by fire” (1 Cor 3:15); Our best efforts will turn to ashesCf. Lot (2 Pet 2:7,8). We need to obey, follow, arise and go
98 Jonah 1:14 Fear vs. Fear of the Lord 14 Therefore they called out to the LORD, "O LORD, let us not perish for this man's life, and lay not on us innocent blood, for you, O LORD, have done as it pleased you."They pulled until they turned to God themselves and cried– “don’t let us die because your servant was disobedient and unfaithful.”– “don’t hold us guilty because of your servants sins.”– “don’t hold us guilty of his blood when we throw him over the side.”The idolatrous sailors call upon the Lord, Jonah’s God, when Jonah refuses to pray.We who are His “servants and followers” often stubbornly reject His mission for us leaving it to the world to be the instruments fulfilling God's will and purposes.caring for the weak, the poor, the persecuted …
99 Jonah 1:14 He did it – We’re innocent! Really?!? 14] Wherefore they cried unto the LORD, and said, We beseech thee, O LORD, we beseech thee, let us not perish for this man’s life, and lay not upon us innocent blood: for thou, O LORD, hast done as it pleased thee.The sailors feared they would be held accountable for murder.Contrasts sharply with Jonah’s lack of compassion for the Ninevites (cf. 4:1-2)Those Gentiles, not having the Law of God, still recognized the worth of a human life.They pleaded for God’s mercy on them for killing an innocent man.By their words the sailors were acknowledging His divine sovereignty and providence in the storm (1:4) and in the casting of the lots (v. 7)
100 Jonah 1:14 He did it – We’re innocent! Really?!? 14] Wherefore they cried unto the LORD, and said, We beseech thee, O LORD, we beseech thee, let us not perish for this man’s life, and lay not upon us innocent blood: for thou, O LORD, hast done as it pleased thee.“...innocent blood”(compare to Deut 21:8)Pontius Pilate washed his hands and confessed Christ’s innocence, “I am innocent of the blood of this just person.”Whereas Jonah, the victim, was guilty and the sailors innocent,Christ our sacrificial victim was innocent and Pontius Pilate and all of us were guilty.But by imputation of our guilt to Him and His righteousness to us, the spotless Antitype exactly corresponds to the guilty type.
101 Jonah 1:15 Fear vs. Fear of the Lord 15 So they picked up Jonah and hurled him into the sea, and the sea ceased from its raging.The sailors carry out Jonah’s proposal and cast him into the sea.Immediately the storm ceases and the sea calms.God is powerful and sovereign...He is in control of the wind and the sea.At his command, it is absolutely wild.At his command, it stands perfectly still.God sets the limits for the sea. Job 38:8-11There is nothing in the natural world that is outside of his ability to control.
102 Jonah 1:15 Shock and Awe !!So they picked up Jonah and hurled him into the sea, and the sea ceased from its raging.God's display of his power and sovereignty is for a PURPOSE.It always has a purpose – God does just do things…God intended to reveal himself through the storm.It was intended to evoke a response:reverential fear and awe.The pagan sailors get it while Jonah, God's prophet ... misses it.Too often those of us who should live in awe ... are often aweless.
103 Who’s in charge here ???God does the same thing again, many years later... Mk 4:36-41Jesus, the maker of the sea and the land, finds himself in a violent storm and he is perfectly asleep.His disciples fear for their lives and wake him up asking him if he cares that they are going to drown.Jesus simply says, "Quiet! Be still!" and it is immediately calm.The disciples, many of whom were also sailors, had the same response as the sailors with Jonah...they were terrified.Jesus is the one who pursued Jonah.Jesus is the one who sent the violent storm andIt is Jesus who calmed it.Jesus is the one acting behind the scenes to show Himself the powerful and mighty God to Jonah so that Jonah (and you and I) will humbly repent, worship, and obey.
104 God is in control and has a plan for you Jesus asked the disciples, Jonah and us ..."where is your faith?"God says to us loud and clear, over and over:You can trust me.The LORD, the God of heaven and earth, the maker of the sea and the land is YOUR God...and NOTHING is to hard for him.If He asks us to do something ... He will make sure we can do it, providing the skill, power, opportunity, and resourcesHas Jesus called us to do something? Yes, Make Disciples !All authority in heaven and earth belongs to Jesus...He says, go make disciples of all the nations. Mat 28:18-20Carry out His ministry of reconciliation 2Co 5:18-20We have a mission, and we have a King who stands behind us who can move the sea and the land to make sure it can be accomplished.
105 Jonah 1:15 Gone Fishing…15] So they took up Jonah, and cast him forth into the sea: and the sea ceased from her raging.“sea ceased … raging”:At Jesus’ word (Lk 8:24).God spares the prayerful penitent, a truth illustrated:now in the case of the sailors,presently in that of Jonah, andthirdly, in that of Nineveh.The sudden calm was an answer to the sailors’ prayers (v. 5)
106 What and how did they sacrifice ??? Animal cargo ??? Jonah 1:16 I Swear…Jon 1:16 Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and they offered a sacrifice to the LORD and made vows.Again the sailors are seen in contrast with their former passenger.Whereas Jonah was disobedient to God, they were making vows and praising Him!Amazed at the sudden calm, theyoffered a sacrifice in praise to the Lord, (Israel’s God)and promised (made vows) to continue their praise.What and how did they sacrifice ??? Animal cargo ???
107 Jonah 1:16 Fear vs. Fear of the Lord Jon 1:16 Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and they offered a sacrifice to the LORD and made vows.If these sailors "greatly feared” when the towering waves filled their ship, now they “greatly feared the Lord” given the uncanny calm that fell on the sea.Out of their fear of the LORD, the God who made the sea and the Land, the sailors sacrifice an animal onboard and offer it to the LORD,Each sailor makes a vow to the LORD that he will presumably fulfill individually at his final destination.We have no record that these men ever abandoned their pagan creeds.In the pagan world, these men became witnesses (via their vows) of the might and power and glory of the One True and Living God.
108 God needs to change us before He can use us Jonah changed.God’s plan, message and purposes did not change.When God calls we are responsible to obey – He will rewardHave you run (are you running) from Him?Is the ‘Christian life’ a dud?Are you watching from the sidelines?It may be time to go to God – confess your attempt to avoid responsibility and repent of you disobedience.He will forgive – If he can forgave Nineveh….Make yourself available to Him moment by moment starting now.When He calls, Arise and go…
109 Jonah 1:17 Preparing a Great Fish Dinner Jonah still had a long way to go and lessons to learn – we do too.God was still waiting for Jonah to not only confess as he did with the sailors but to repent and return to God …17] Now the LORD had prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.The Lord prepared the sea creature: ‘fish’ or ‘whale’ or ‘whatever’Hebrew word ‘dag’ (OT) - and - Greek word ‘ketos’ (NT)Both are generic terms and can be applied to any large aquatic creature [Both LXX and NT quotes]“three days and three nights”:Jesus Himself attests to the reality of Jonah’s experience as a prophecy of His own endurance on our behalf…(Mt 12:40)
110 It’s a sign …Some modernists argue that the concept of a bodily resurrection from the dead was unknown in Old Testament times,Jesus declared: ”...for as Jonah was three days and nights in the belly of the sea-monster; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth” (Matt 12:40).The Lord viewed Jonah’s three-day ‘entombment’ in the belly of the great ‘fish’ and his deliverance from death as a foreshadowing of His resurrection from the grave, by which Christ was declared to by the Son of God with power (Rom 1:4).“For whatsoever things were written aforetime [i.e., the Old Testament scriptures] were written for our learning, that through patience and through comfort of the scriptures we might have hope” (Rom 15:4)
111 10 Miracles Jonah experienced The StormThe Selection by lot of Jonah as guiltyThe Sudden subsiding of the stormThe Great fish: (+ right time and place!)The Preservation of JonahThe Ejection — alive, safe & sound — on dry landThe Repentance of the entire city of NinevehThe GourdThe Worm(s)The East WindTake the miracles out of the Bible: nothing will be left!Notice that in Scripture, the miracles are not so much about unusual events – although there are many – but they are about God’s timing of the events.If you’re waiting for a miracle – it’s often because you’re waiting after God has said, “Arise and go,…
112 Why do Christians have trials ? To glorify God Dan 3:16-18, 24-25To discipline for known sin Heb 12:5f; Jas 4:17; Rom 14:23; 1 John 1:9To prevent us from falling into sin 1 Pet 4:1-2To keep us from pride. 2Cor 12:7-10To build faith 1 Pet 1:6-7To cause growth Rom 5:3-5To teach obedience and discipline Acts 9:15f; Phil 4:11fTo equip us to comfort others 2 Cor 1:3-4To prove the reality of Christ in us 2Cor4:7-11For testimony to the angels Job 1:8; Eph 3:8-11; 1 Pet 1:12— Hal Lindsey, Combat Faith
113 Jonah 1 - Study Questions (Missler) 1) Name two prophets that came out of Galilee.2) Name four prophets specifically referenced by Jesus Christ in the New Testament.3) List three aspects of Jonah’s ministry specifically referenced by Jesus Christ.4) Name five prophets that addressed the idolatries of the Northern Kingdom.5) Where was Tarshish? (Justify your answer.)6) Why did Jonah attempt to run from God’s assignment?7) What made Nineveh unique and relevant in ancient history?
114 Jonah 1 - Study Questions (Missler) Discussion Questions: (“Where two people agree, one is redundant.”)1) Why did God send the Jewish prophet to a Gentile nation?2) In what ways was Jonah a type of the Messiah?3) What parallels do you see between the predicament of Nineveh and America?What might this portend for America’s future?4) Do you really believe the story of Jonah? Why?5) Contrast worship and obedience in our own lives.6) What are the main personal lessons from Jonah 1?Research Projects (For the truly dedicated.)1) Review the rise, fall, and rediscovery of Nineveh.2) What role will Assyria play in end-time prophecy?
116 Jonah 2:1-101 Then Jonah prayed to the LORD his God from the stomach of the fish,2 and he said, "I called out of my distress to the LORD, And He answered me. I cried for help from the depth of Sheol; You heard my voice.3 "For You had cast me into the deep, Into the heart of the seas, And the current engulfed me. All Your breakers and billows passed over me.4 "So I said, 'I have been expelled from Your sight. Nevertheless I will look again toward Your holy temple.'5 "Water encompassed me to the point of death. The great deep engulfed me, Weeds were wrapped around my head.6 "I descended to the roots of the mountains. The earth with its bars was around me forever, But You have brought up my life from the pit, O LORD my God.7 "While I was fainting away, I remembered the LORD, And my prayer came to You, Into Your holy temple.8 "Those who regard vain idols Forsake their faithfulness,9 But I will sacrifice to You With the voice of thanksgiving. That which I have vowed I will pay. Salvation is from the LORD."10 Then the LORD commanded the fish, and it vomited Jonah up onto the dry land.
117 Psalm 51:1-19 David’s Prayer To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet went to him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba.Have mercy on me, O God, according to your steadfast love; according to your abundant mercy blot out my transgressions. Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin! For I know my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me. Against you, you only, have I sinned and done what is evil in your sight, so that you may be justified in your words and blameless in your judgment. Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me. Behold, you delight in truth in the inward being, and you teach me wisdom in the secret heart. Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. Let me hear joy and gladness; let the bones that you have broken rejoice. Hide your face from my sins, and blot out all my iniquities. Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me. Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me. Restore to me the joy of your salvation, and uphold me with a willing spirit. Then I will teach transgressors your ways, and sinners will return to you. Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God, O God of my salvation, and my tongue will sing aloud of your righteousness. O Lord, open my lips, and my mouth will declare your praise. For you will not delight in sacrifice, or I would give it; you will not be pleased with a burnt offering. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, O God, you will not despise. Do good to Zion in your good pleasure; build up the walls of Jerusalem; then will you delight in right sacrifices, in burnt offerings and whole burnt offerings; then bulls will be offered on your altar.
118 It is the Lord who "provided" things throughout this story... What’s happening to me ??Jonah is cast into the sea, and begins to drown...but he doesn't because "the LORD provided a great fish to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was inside the fish three days and three nights."It is the Lord who "provided" things throughout this story...Jonah is inside the fish...for three days and three nights...and we have no record that he spoke a word.Can you imagine what Jonah was thinking?Dazed, confused, once he got over the initial shock and began to realize where he was, he had a question to contemplate:“Why had God spared him?"Finally after three days and three nights alive in the belly of the fish ... Jonah speaks, and when he does,He prays for the first time.
119 Jonah 2:1-9 Jonah’s Prayer Then Jonah prayed unto the LORD his God out of the fish's belly, And said,I cried by reason of mine affliction unto the LORD, and he heard me;out of the belly of sheol cried I, and thou heardest my voice.For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas;and the floods compassed me about: all thy billowsand thy waves passed over me.Then I said,I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple.The waters compassed me about, even to the soul:the depth closed me round about, the weeds were wrapped about my head.I went down to the bottoms of the mountains;the earth with her bars was about me for ever:yet hast thou brought up my life from corruption, O LORD my God.When my soul fainted within me I remembered the LORD:and my prayer came in unto thee, into thine holy temple…But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving;I will pay that that I have vowed. Salvation is of the LORD.Cf. Ps 39:9; 18:4-6, 7, 15; 30:2; 120:1; 42:7; 69:1-2
120 Odd prayer ! Doesn’t fit the situation… God has called you to prophecy for Him and you ran from HimHe sent a storm to stop you andWhen you had tried to end your life by being cast into the stormy ocean He had sent a "great fish" to swallow you and preserve your life...what kind of prayer would you pray?What comes out of Jonah's mouth doesn't seem to fit.Jonah prays a prayer of thanksgiving ... a prayer that has little or no hint of repentance.Would your prayer resemble Jonah 2 or Psalm 51
121 Jonah 2 Have I got your attention? Feb, 1891, James Bartley, a whaler on Star of the East, near Falkland Islands was lost chasing a sperm whale. The crew caught and killed the whale, to find Bartley inside, unconscious, and alive. He recovered in three weeks, resumed his duties, but his skin was bleached white like parchment…M. DeParvelle, ed. Journal Des DebatsA.J. Wilson, Princeton Theological Review, XXV,October 1927, p. 636An English sailor fell overboard and was swallowed by a fish. A day or two later the fish was seen floating on the surface of the water, and was taken ashore. When it was opened up, the sailors found their shipmate alive. He survived the experience, but his skin had turned a chalky white and remained so for the rest of his life. (Dr. Rimmer talked with him and learned the details of his experience.)Harry Rimmer, The Harmony of Science and the Scripture
122 Cried from Hell, Sheol, Hades, fish’s belly … What’s the difference? 1] Then Jonah prayed unto the LORD his God out of the fish’s belly,2] And said, I cried by reason of mine affliction unto the LORD, and he heard me; out of the belly of hell cried I, and thou heardest my voice.Hell (Used 53 times: 32 times in the Old Testament and 21 in the New Testament)Sheol (Hebrew)Hades (Greek)Gehenna (11 of 12 by the Lord Himself)There is only 1 authority who has seen them all first hand– Jesus Christ our Lord, the Creator …
123 Jonah 2:2 Crying Out – in Anguish 2] And said, I cried by reason of mine affliction unto the LORD,In graphically poetic language, the agonizing prophet described his horrible ordeal in the sea-monster’s belly as an experience akin to being in “hell.”He exclaims: “I cried by reason of my affliction unto the Lord … out of the belly of hell cried I” (2:2).The Hebrew term is Sheol denotes the abode of the wicked prior to the coming final judgment.Crying out by reason of affliction certainly indicates conscious suffering,the state of the wicked dead is that of conscious torment(cf. Luke 16:23; 2 Peter 2:9, ASV).J.W. McGarvey has an excellent discussion of this point in his essay, “Destiny of the Wicked,” (Lard’s Quarterly, II, pp. 429, 430).
124 Sheol and KeverSheol Not the “grave” (which is the destination of the body)The location of departed souls; the abode of the dead (both good and bad)1st occurrence is in Gen 37:35: Jacob assumes that his son was still conscious after death and he would be united with him.The word could not mean “grave”Joseph was supposedly devoured by an animal.He was still his son; still retained his identityKever Grave: kever, opposite of sheol, not synonymous (Isa 14:19)– sepulchres were above the earth or in caves.Sheol: “Under the earth,” “underworld” “lower parts of the earth.” (Ps 63:9; Isa 14:9; 44:23; Ezek 26:20; 31:14,16,18; 32:18,24.)– “go down”: implies geocentric metaphor.LXX: Sheol is never translated mneema; always hades. Opposite of heaven (Ps 139:8).
125 Sheol and KeverSheol and Kever - Always contrasted, never equated (Ps 16:8-11).Verb kebar (to bury) - never used of Sheol(Gen 23:4,6,9,19,20; 49:30, 31, etc.)Kever can be pluralized – multiple graves;Sheol is never pluralized – always singular.A grave is a located as a specific site;Sheol is never localized; accessible at deathno matter where of how the death takes place.No grave is necessary to go to Sheol.One can purchase or sell a grave;Sheol is never spoken of as being purchased or sold (Gen 23:4-20)You can own a grave as personal property;No where is Sheol owned by man (Gen 23:4-20)Bodies are unconscious in the grave;Those in Sheol are conscious(Isa 14:4-7; 44:23; Ezek 31:16; 32:21; Lk 16:19ff)
126 Hades and Gehenna Hades Classic Greek: Hades or Pluto, the god of the lower regions; Orcus, the netherworld, the realm of the dead.Biblical Greek: the infernal regions, a dark and dismal place in the very depths of the earth, the common receptacle of disembodied spirits (idiomatically, a geocentric concept).GehennaThis was originally the Valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned;Symbolic of the “lake of fire” that is the ultimate destiny of the unsaved temporarily held in Hades or Sheol.Topologically, the opposite of Hades: Gehenna is located in the outer darkness (Mt 8:12; 22:13; 25:30).Matthew 8:12But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.Matthew 22:13Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.Matthew 25:30And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
127 Luke 16:19-31 An eyewitness account There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day: And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores, And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man’s table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham’s bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried; And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame. But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented. And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence. Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father’s house: For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent. And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.
128 Luke 16:19-31 An eyewitness account This is not a parable: these are real historical characters with names.The Underworld: Some InsightsThe man in Hades was fully conscious: memory; speaking; pain; desires.(He was not yet in Hell, but only Hades.)His eternal destiny was irrevocably fixedHe knew that what he was experiencing was fair and just.He also knew what his brothers needed to do to avoid his own fate: repentThis is the OT picture.After the Cross, Jesus came, declared His victory and took those in “Abraham’s Bosom” with Him (Mt 27; Eph 4:4-10; 1 Ptr ; 4:6)
129 Jonah 2:3-43] For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about: all thy billows and thy waves passed over me. 4] Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple.As the currents of the Mediterranean swirled about Jonah, he knew that God controls the waves and breakers(Jonah called them “Thy”; cf. Ps 88:7).It was no mere chance, but the hand of God which sent them.Compare Job’s similar recognition of God’s hand in calamities, (Job 1:21; 2:10) and David’s (2 Sam 16:5–11).
130 Jonah 2:3-43] For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about: all thy billows and thy waves passed over me. 4] Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple.Jonah’s prayer incorporates many phrases and figures of speech from the Psalms.(Psalm 3:8; 18:4-6, 7, 15; 30:2; 31:6, 22; 39:9; 42:7; 69:1-2; 116:17-18; 120:1; 142:3)Jonah knew God’s WordJonah 2:2 Psalm 120:1Jonah 2:3 Psalm 42:7Jonah 2:4 Psalm 31:22Jonah 2:5 Psalm 69:1Jonah 2:7 Psalm 142:3; 18:6Jonah 2:8 Psalm 31:6;Jonah 2:9 Psalm 116:17, 18, 3:8
131 Jonah 2:5-65] The waters compassed me about, even to the soul: the depth closed me round about, the weeds were wrapped about my head.6] I went down to the bottoms of the mountains; the earth with her bars was about me for ever: yet hast thou brought up my life from corruption, O LORD my God.“...bottoms of … mountains”:where they terminate in the hidden depths of the sea. Compare Ps 18:7,“the foundations of the hills” (Ps 18:15).shachath corruption: or, the pit.Cf. Korah’s rebellion (Num 16:31-35).Hezekiah seems to have incorporated Jonah’s very words in his prayer (Isa 38:17), just as Jonah appropriated the language of the Psalms.
132 Jonah 2:7-107] When my soul fainted within me I remembered the LORD: and my prayer came in unto thee, into thine holy temple.8]They that observe lying vanities forsake their own mercy.“...observe lying vanities”:Regard or reverence idols, powerless to save (Ps 31:6).We become like the gods we worship (Ps 135:18).9] But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving; I will pay that that I have vowed. Salvation is of the LORD.10] And the LORD spake unto the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land.
133 Jonah 2 – Study Questions 1. Why would a prophet who desired the destruction of a pagan city choose to die for a group of pagan sailors?2. Why was he thankful that God didn't kill him?Was he just glad that he didn't die?Or did his not dying signify something to him?Jonah never showed a real fear of dying...his greatest fear was God showing mercy to people who didn't deserve it.He had a deep seated religious conviction ... and his being spared likely signfied to him that he was right!He appears to be thankful for more than just being spared from death ...see vs. 8...taking a shot at idolaters (Ninevites).
134 Jonah 2 – Study Questions 3. Why no repentance?Wouldn't repentance precede thanksgiving?The evidence of arrogance is all throughout chapter one ... if he was repentant of that why doesn't the Bible ever record it?In Ch 3, Jonah has to be told again to go to Nineveh ... and he does not appear to be happy about it – again.Jonah was arguing that God was doing something UNJUST by sparing the wicked (Nineveh)!This is the opposite of Abraham’s argument with God over Sodom – that God was doing something unjust by destroying the righteous with the wicked.Abraham was arguing for mercyJonah was arguing for justice
135 Jonah 2 – Study Questions (Missler) Why was Jonah reluctant?What personal lessons can we learn from this account?Who is the key person in the narrative?What can we learn from him?What is the purpose of prayer?
136 Jonah 2 – Study Questions (Missler) 1) How do we know the famous story of Jonah and the “whale” is true?2) Why do some scholars believe that Jonah actually died and was resurrected?3) Describe at least five distinctions between Sheol (or Hades) and the grave.4) How does Gehenna differ from Hades (or Sheol)?How are they topologically opposites?5) Where do we learn the most about what happens when we die? (References?)6) How was the worship of Dagon among the Ninevites relevant the narrative?7) What does Jonah’s prayer reveal about his (change of) attitude?8) Who is the key person in this narrative?9) List six miracles that have occurred so far in this narrative.
137 Jonah 2 – Study Questions (Missler) Discussion Questions (“Where two people agree, one is redundant.”)1) How is the current US Navy submarine technology relevant to the Book of Jonah? Or is it?2) Is the Rich Man still waiting for his “fingertip of water” today?3) Did Jonah really die in the fish? (Why?)4) How does prayer change things?5) List (as many as you can) reasons that Christians have trials. Add examples from your own experience.Research Projects (For the truly dedicated.)1) Compile modern reports of events involving people surviving after being swallowed by large aquatic creatures (fish or whales).
138 I have a message for you… JONAH 3I have a message for you…
139 Jonah 3:1-51 Now the word of the LORD came to Jonah the second time, saying,2 "Arise, go to Nineveh the great city and proclaim to it the proclamation which I am going to tell you."3 So Jonah arose and went to Nineveh according to the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, a three days' walk.4 Then Jonah began to go through the city one day's walk; and he cried out and said, "Yet forty days and Nineveh will be overthrown."5 Then the people of Nineveh believed in God; and they called a fast and put on sackcloth from the greatest to the least of them.
140 Jonah 3 - Mission to Nineveh After being vomited up by the sea creature Joanh made his way to Nineveh,From the shore of the Mediterranean Sea (depending on which beach he landed upon as his starting point) the journey to Nineveh could have taken a month (or more)Jonah had ample time for sober reflection on the fact that God is sovereign, is in control and is to be obeyed quickly and well.Nineveh = Capital of the Assyrian Empire under Sennecherib;Dominated the ancient world (930 to 612 BC);Conquered and eliminated the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 BCIt’s doom was foretold (Isa 10:5-19; 17:12-14; 18:4-6; 30:27-33; 37:21-35; Hosea 4 -14);Was destroyed by Medes and Persians 612 BC
141 Jonah 3:1 Another 2nd chance from God 1] And the word of the LORD came unto Jonah the second time, saying,Abraham denied Sarah Gen12:15; (2X) Gen 20:2;Moses murdered a man Ex2:12;David: adultery & murder 2 Sam 11:4,15;Peter denied Christ Mt 26:74;Mark abandoned Paul & Barnabas Acts 13:13.The God of the Second Chance for Israel also:Called the second time Isa 11:11; 61:5 Ro 11:15; Ez 36:24Deposited in their own land Zech 8: 20-23;Called to the Gentiles Ge 12:3; Is 43:10; Ex 19:5-6;(Both Peter and Jonah were called to the Gentiles from Joppa)Failure; consequences Deut 28:64, 65;Preserved Supernaturally Deut 30:1-5;
142 Jonah 3:2 Reboot: Press [Ctrl – Alt – Del] 2] Arise, go unto Nineveh, that great city, and preach unto it the preaching that I bid thee.Initially [1:2] “arise”: “cry against it.” vs. (before his resurrection).Now [3:2] “arise”: “preach unto it.” (after his resurrection).Grace, through His death: Gal 2:21; 3:10, 13, 17, 18.When Jonah arrived – he cried against it Jonah 3:4
143 Jonah 3:2 Reboot: Press [Ctrl – Alt – Del] 2] Arise, go unto Nineveh, that great city, and preach unto it the preaching that I bid thee.3 times Nineveh is called as a great city(1:2; 3:2; 4:11; cf. “very large city,” 3:3).Nineveh’s huge inner wall (50 feet wide and 100 feet high) was about 8 miles in circumference while the outer wall encompassed fields and smaller towns (viz., Rehoboth II, Calah, and Resen; cf. Gen 10:11-12).The words “great city” likely included the city of Nineveh proper and its administrative environs.“Metro Nineveh” – like Metro Detroit includes the suburbs.Jonah was to travel those 550 miles to Nineveh and preach…
144 Jonah 3:3 The call from the inner wall… 3] So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the LORD.Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days’ journey.“Three Days”: miles per day = 40 miles acrossFor 600 years, Jonah was “just a fish story”; until Mt 12: (Cf. Mk 8:31; Mt 27:63; 1 Cor 15:4; Jon 1:17).Sabbaths: Lev 23.Evening and morning, erev and boker(Gen 1:4, 5, 8, 13, 19 …).
145 Jonah 3:4 The call from the inner wall… 4] And Jonah began to enter into the city a day’s journey, and he cried, and said, “Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown!”Jonah walked to the gate of the inner wall and then cried out God’s warning40 Days (Testing; Probation)The Flood Gen 7:17Moses on the Mount Ex 24:18Wanderings (40 years) Num 14fElijah: flight to Horeb 1 Kgs 19:8Temptation of Christ Mt 4:2Yours! Th 5:6-9; He 9:27; Jn 5:24
146 Jonah 3:5 Word, I hear you …5] So the people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least of them.Outward symbols of inward contrition and humiliation:they fasted (cf. 1Sa 7:6; 2Sa 1:12; Neh 1:4; Zech 7:5); andput on sackcloth (cf. Ge 37:34; 1Kg 21:27; Neh 9:1; Est 4:1-4; Lam 2:10; Dan 9:3; Joel 1:8).Note: Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites: Luke 11:29-32Skin bleached by his stay in the fish – got their attentionThey worshipped Dagon, the fish god; oannes;They knew Jonah’s story and experiences– when he spoke, they listenedAssyrian mound, Nebi Yunas = “Prophet Jonah” was found by the archaeologist Botta- positively connecting Jonah and Nineveh;- Botta also discovered the walls of the old city!
147 Forty and DoneThe Lord, not man, is in control of the destiny of nations.Jehovah rules in the kingdoms of men and disposes of them according to His divine standard (cf. Psalms 22:28; Proverbs 14:34; Daniel 2:21; 4:17).Those who think that nations stand or fall because of a “strong national defense” are woefully ignorant of biblical principles.Nineveh was given forty days to repent which they did and as a result, the nation was spared destruction for about a century and a half.Later, however, when Assyria degenerated again, she was destroyed when Nineveh fell to the Babylonians in 612 B.C.The prophet, Nahum, addresses this very matter.
148 Short and to the pointThough Jonah’s message was very brief, it produced the God’s desired effect.The power is inherent within the word of God.That good seed when it comes into contact with good ground, honest and good hearts bears fruit (Luke 8:15).The testimony of Jesus Christ is that “the men of Nineveh repented at the preaching of Jonah” (Matthew 12:41).A short message containing a few God directed words have great impact and effect.
149 God prepared … Who’s in Charge Here ? Jonah 1:4 But the LORD sent out a great wind into the sea, …(1:11, 13, 15)Jonah 1:17 Now the LORD had prepared a great fish …Jonah 2:10 And the LORD spake unto the fish, and it vomited …Jonah 4:6 And the LORD God prepared a gourd, …Jonah 4:7 But God prepared a worm….Jonah 4:8 … God prepared a vehement east wind;and the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he …How is God Preparing You?Blessing you with good things you don’t deserve?Taking from you things which would limit your perspective?Allowing you to go through windstorms which show you where your heart is?Is it time to “go, out of your gourd” for God?
150 Jonah 3:6-106 When the word reached the king of Nineveh, he arose from his throne, laid aside his robe from him, covered himself with sackcloth and sat on the ashes.7 He issued a proclamation and it said, "In Nineveh by the decree of the king and his nobles: Do not let man, beast, herd, or flock taste a thing. Do not let them eat or drink water.8 "But both man and beast must be covered with sackcloth; and let men call on God earnestly that each may turn from his wicked way and from the violence which is in his hands.9 "Who knows, God may turn and relent and withdraw His burning anger so that we will not perish."10 When God saw their deeds, that they turned from their wicked way, then God relented concerning the calamity which He had declared He would bring upon them. And He did not do it.
151 Jonah 3:6 Did you hear the about… 6] For word came unto the king of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, and he laid his robe from him, and covered him with sackcloth, and sat in ashes.The Israelites claimed to be God’s people; but ignored many (of their own) prophets, killing several – and they did not repent.The pagan people of Nineveh heard the lone foreign prophet shouting in the middle of their capital – and they did repent!The king of mighty Nineveh did not hear Jonah first hand.He repented on “hear-say!”
152 Jonah 3:6 Short but Sweet, Message delivered Jonah entered the great city of Nenvah with a blunt message (consisting of only five words in the Hebrew text):“Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown.”Jonah 3:4Amazingly, there was mass repentance,Everyone from the king (Ashur-dan III, according to Assyrian records) down to the commoner on the street repented.Jonah’s message did not call them to worship or serve Jehovah,It was not a call to Judaism.It was a warning that because of their behavior they were going to be destroyed by Jonah’s God.
153 Jonah 3:7-9 Message received The king’s reaction: Jonah 3:7-9Then he issued a proclamation in Nineveh:"By the decree of the king and his nobles: Do not let people or animals, herds or flocks, taste anything; do not let them eat or drink But let people and animals be covered with sackcloth. Let everyone call urgently on God. Let them give up their evil ways and their violence Who knows? God may yet relent and with compassion turn from his fierce anger so that we will not perish."
154 Once saved I cannot, I do not want to go on sinning. RepentanceRepentance is not merely sorrow for sin;It requires turning away from evil conduct.Repentance is an action we take. (Luke 13:3,5; Acts 17:30)Repentance is not the way to salvation.Repentance is a result of salvation.Once saved I cannot, I do not want to go on sinning.Rom 10:9-139 If you declare with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved As Scripture says, "Anyone who believes in him will never be put to shame.“ For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile—the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him, 13 for, "Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”
155 Jonah 3:8 I Hear You…8] But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.This city was also known for its idolatry;it had temples dedicated to the gods Nabu, Asshur, Adad; and Dagon, the fish god.The Mitre (fish symbol) is a pagan symbol even today(an “icthus” on your car is not the witness God is seeking…Fishers of men catch fish.They do not ‘mount’ them.They bring them to God and He cleans them….
156 Jonah 3:8 I Hear You…8] But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.Nineveh was well known for the brutal atrocities it inflicted on captives.The Assyrian king acknowledged that his people’s ways were “evil” and characterized by “violence” (Jonah 3:8).They were “carefree,” thinking themselves invincible (Zep 2:15).Nahum also wrote about their crimes (Nah 3:1, 4, 16).Jonah’s preaching and their repentance delayed God’s judgment for over 100 years by which time they had returned to their old ways.
157 Jonah 3:9 Do it! Who knows?9] Who can tell if God will turn and repent, and turn away from his fierce anger, that we perish not?Before Jonah finally arrived at this seemingly impregnable fortress-city, two plagues had erupted thereone in 765 BC.another in 759 BC.And there was a total solar eclipse occurred 15 Jun 763 BCPlagues were viewed and a punishment from their gods and may help explain why the Ninevites responded so readily to Jonah’s message.The citizens of Nineveh had somehow learned of the prophet’s “resurrection” from the belly of the “fish”. They worshipped a fish god, Dagon.When Jonah shows up with his warning, a man who had survived an encounter (defeated) their god, they gave him attention.As Jesus noted, Jonah was a “sign” to that generation just as the raised Lord would be to His (cf. Luke 11:30).
158 to sigh, groan; thus: lament, grieve, pity. Jonah 3:10 I saw that !!10] And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them; and he did it not.They repented: nacham:to sigh, groan; thus: lament, grieve, pity.Can God repent?[Repentance (OT): 40X!]
159 Timing ?? It Depends…Jonah’s message to Nineveh reveals that the timing of God is sometimes conditional.Jonah declared that the great city would be destroyed in 40 days; but, it survived for a century and a half beyond that time.The prediction of doom was conditioned upon Nineveh’s response to the prophetic message.It wasn’t a schedule, it was a deadline - to repent.Israel was promised an inheritance of the land of Canaan.That promise, however, was conditioned upon their fidelity to God (Jos 22:4, 5; 23:1), and the time eventually came when they lost their lease on the Promised Land.God’s unconditional promise to Abraham will be fulfilled.It is not based upon Israel’s righteousness before God, but rather God’s unfailing character and word. (Ge 12:1-3, 15:12-21)
160 Side trip: Hosea, can you see… “It was the best of times and it was the worst of times …”— Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two CitiesThe Northern Kingdom - Their Predicament - God’s Solution (Hosea 4-14)Their standing army had recovered all of the territory previously lost;They enjoyed unparalleled material prosperity
161 Side trip: Hosea, can you see… God’s IndictmentThey exchanged their loyalty to their heritage for idol worship• Results: the lowest ebb of immorality:– Social injustice– Violent crime– Religious hypocrisy– Political rebellion– Selfish arrogance– Spiritual ingratitude
162 Side trip: Hosea, can you see… I’ve got good news and bad news … Hosea’s MessageGod’s love and care had provided them with abundance and prosperity;Their continuing sin, disloyalty and abandonment of Him forced Him to satisfy His justice by sending judgment.God will use enemies as His instrument of judgment.Israel – the nation formed by the Hebrews in the territory of the 10 Northern Tribes - will be history very shortly.
163 The only thing history teaches us is that we don’t learn from history … American Parallels?God rebuked Israel for their brutality, murder, and warfare;We murder babies that are inconvenient;Homosexuality has become just an “alternative lifestyle”;We change marriage partners like this fall’s fashions;We have abandoned the sanctity of commitments in our relationships - Our word is pretty much worthless…We have had Oklahoma City, Waco and Columbine High School among others;New York City has recorded more crimes than:England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Switzerland, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands, Norway, and Denmark, combined!
164 The only thing history teaches us is that we don’t learn from history … American Parallels?Index of Leading Cultural IndicatorsOver the last 30 years:560% increase in viol17ent crime400% increase in illegitimate births400% increase in the divorce rate300% increase in single-parent homes200% increase in teenage suicides75% drop in SAT scores— Heritage Foundation, 1993
165 The only thing history teaches us is that we don’t learn from history … American Parallels?Each day in America2,795 teen pregnancies1,106 teen abortions4,219 teenagers contract a sexually transmitted diseaseEvery 64 seconds a baby is born to a teenage mother;5 minutes later, a baby will have been born to a teenager who already has a child.10 hours later, 560 babies will have been born to teenagers . . .
166 The only thing history teaches us is that we don’t learn from history … American Parallels?The New RestrictionsCreationism cannot be taught because it requires a belief in God.Morality cannot be taught because it requires reference to the Bible.Traditional history cannot be taught because it speaks of the important place of God and our religious values throughout the entire record of human affairs.
167 The only thing history teaches us is that we don’t learn from history … American Parallels?A Measure of DistressEvery man did that which was right in his own eyes...Deu 12:8; Jdg 17:6; 21:25; Prv 12:15; Prv 21:2They had absolutely no fear of God – respect or fright.I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that His justice cannot sleep forever. — Thomas Jefferson, 1781If God does not judge America, He will have to apologize to Sodom and Gomorah - Billy Graham,
168 The only thing history teaches us is that we don’t learn from history … America’s Only Hope“The only hope for America is a grass roots revival”…Robert Bork, Slouching Towards Gomorrah2 Chronicles 7:14If my people,who are called by my name,shall humble themselves;and pray;and seek my face,and turn from their wicked waythen will I hear from heavenand will forgive their sin,and will heal their land.
169 The only thing history teaches us is that we don’t learn from history … America’s Only Hope“The only hope for America is a grass roots revival”…Robert Bork, Slouching Towards Gomorrah2 Chronicles 7:14It is: Not the LGBT’sNot the ObamanitesNor the ClintonistasNor any group of unbelievers and sinnersThat are blocking the ‘healing of our land’.It is: God’s own people, those called by His who are nothumbling themselves or praying or seeking His face and who are certainly not turning from our wicked ways.So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it. Isaiah 55:11
170 Where are we? Abundance Liberty Complacency Courage Apathy Faith DependencyBondageFaithCourageLibertyThe Cycle of Nations“from bondage to spiritual faith; from spiritual faith to great courage; from courage to liberty; from liberty to abundance; from abundance to complacency; from complacency to apathy; from apathy to dependency; from dependence back again into bondage.”— Alexander Tyler, 1750
171 Why didn’t the book of Jonah end with Chapter 3 ?? Becausethe story is about God,not Jonah or Nineveh !!!It is there to reveal God’s character,His grace, mercy, and loveandBecause God’s plan for us(as it was with Jonah)hasn’t yet been fully accomplished…
172 Jonah Chapter 3 Questions (Missler) Study Questions1) Name six people that could testify of our God being the “God of the Second Chance”.2) List the parallels of the story of Jonah and the story of Israel.3) In what ways was the story of Nineveh a rebuke to Israel?4) Contrast the response of Nineveh to Jonah’s message with that of the Northern Kingdom of Israel to Hosea’s
173 Jonah Chapter 3 Questions (Missler) Discussion Questions (“Where two people agree, one is redundant.”)1) What made the repentance of the king of Nineveh so unique?2) In what ways was the predicament of the Northern Kingdom of Israel a parallel to America? In what ways was Nineveh?3) Where is America in the “cycle of nations”?4) In what ways did Hosea’s message bear fruit? (Cf. Isaiah 55:11)
174 Jonah Chapter 3 Questions (Missler) Research Projects1) Explore the role of “40” (days, years, etc.) in the Bible. What justifiable conclusions can you draw?2) Review any (or several) of the classic studies of the life cycle of nations. (Cf. Toynbee; Jim Black, When Nations Die; Alexander Tyler, et al.)
176 Jonah 4:1-6 1 But it greatly displeased Jonah and he became angry. 2 He prayed to the LORD and said, "Please LORD, was not this what I said while I was still in my own country? Therefore in order to forestall this I fled to Tarshish, for I knew that You are a gracious and compassionate God, slow to anger and abundant in lovingkindness, and one who relents concerning calamity.3 "Therefore now, O LORD, please take my life from me, for death is better to me than life."4 The LORD said, "Do you have good reason to be angry?"5 Then Jonah went out from the city and sat east of it. There he made a shelter for himself and sat under it in the shade until he could see what would happen in the city.6 So the LORD God appointed a plant and it grew up over Jonah to be a shade over his head to deliver him from his discomfort. And Jonah was extremely happy about the plant.
177 Jonah 4:7-117 But God appointed a worm when dawn came the next day and it attacked the plant and it withered.8 When the sun came up God appointed a scorching east wind, and the sun beat down on Jonah's head so that he became faint and begged with all his soul to die, saying, "Death is better to me than life."9 Then God said to Jonah, "Do you have good reason to be angry about the plant?" And he said, "I have good reason to be angry, even to death."10 Then the LORD said, "You had compassion on the plant for which you did not work and which you did not cause to grow, which came up overnight and perished overnight.11 "Should I not have compassion on Nineveh, the great city in which there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know the difference between their right and left hand, as well as many animals?"
178 Jonah 4:1-6 – The Vine1] But it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he was very angry.2] And he prayed unto the LORD, and said, I pray thee, O LORD, was not this my saying, when I was yet in my country? Therefore I fled before unto Tarshish: for I knew that thou art a gracious God, and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repentest thee of the evil.3] Therefore now, O LORD, take, I beseech thee, my life from me; for it is better for me to die than to live.4] Then said the LORD, Doest thou well to be angry?5] So Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east side of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under it in the shadow, till he might see what would become of the city.6] And the LORD God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the gourd.
179 Jonah 4:1 What did you expect? 1] But it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he was very angry.Jonah was upset at this turn of events and he lost his ‘cool’He despaired, even to the point of wanting to die.This turn of events didn’t fit his plan.Eph_4:26 Be ye angry, and sin not:let not the sun go down upon your wrath:God is god, I am notWhat is trust all about?
180 Jonah 4:2-3 Why are you so hot? 2] And he prayed unto the LORD, and said, I pray thee, O LORD, was not this my saying, when I was yet in my country? Therefore I fled before unto Tarshish: for I knew that thou art a gracious God, and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repentest thee of the evil.3] Therefore now, O LORD, take, I beseech thee, my life from me; for it is better for me to die than to live.Jonah pointed his anger at God.He was angry because God was good, mericful to the Ninevites – just as He had been with Jonah,As far as we know, to this point Jonah has not repented, like the Ninevites had just done.
181 Jonah 4:4-5 Really? Is this any way to act? 4] Then said the LORD, Doest thou well to be angry?Then came the Lord’s stinging rebuke.Jonah, what are you doing?Is this the way my messenger should be acting?You are my ambassador.More to come…5] So Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east side of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under it in the shadow, till he might see what would become of the city.Resolutely, Jonah perched himself on a hilltop nearby, pouting but still eagerly watching the city in hope that the Lord would destroy it anyway.Jonah’ s education about God was still incomplete!
182 Jonah 4:5 Don’t Go There5] So Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east side of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under it in the shadow, till he might see what would become of the city.Guaranteed depression:Remove yourself from the people…Hide from life…Focus on things or ministries or programs…Image all sorts of things the haven’t happened…Rather:Surround yourself with supportive believersStay bustFocus on God’s faithfulness, character, and promisesTake the next right step…one at a time.2Co_10:5 Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ;Philippians 4:4-9
183 Jonah 4:6 The Vine, Your Gourd 6] And the LORD God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the gourd.As Jonah sat in the scorching sun, God caused a shady vine to grow up for his comfort and protection against the hot sun and of the day and the prophet was glad.“Gourd”: Palma Christi, Castor bean plant (Ricimum communis)Has huge leaves (8-10 ft);Grows in India, Middle East, and Africa,Grows very quickly; 12”-18"/day.Symbolically it is used of salvation(1 Kgs 7:24; used in the Temple).
184 Jonah 4:7 Your Outta’ Your Gourd 7] But God prepared a worm when the morning rose the next day, and it smote the gourd that it withered.On the following day, however, Jehovah sent a worm to smite Jonah’s vine,Worm(s); (could be plural).As the blistering sun again beat upon his head, the man of God again lapsed into a state of abject depression.
185 Jonah 4:8-9 The Worm then the Wind 8] And it came to pass, when the sun did arise, that God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and wished in himself to die, and said, It is better for me to die than to live.9] And God said to Jonah, Doest thou well to be angry for the gourd?And he said, I do well to be angry, even unto death.“Jonah, why is it that you are so concerned with this vine — a mere plant which is temporal and for which you did not labor; and yet, you evidence utterly no concern for the hapless inhabitants of Nineveh?”God’s question threw a divine spot light upon the pathetic values of the man.Note Jonah’s stubborn answer.Why was Jonah angry?How could he justify himself to God?What was he thinking?
186 Our attitude versus God’s attitude: Mat 18: Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king, which would take account of his servants And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand talents. 25 But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. 26 The servant therefore fell down, and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. 27 Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the debt.28 But the same servant went out, and found one of his fellowservants, which owed him an hundred pence: and he laid hands on him, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay me that thou owest And his fellowservant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt.Jer 17:9-10 The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it? I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings.
187 [Cf. Gen 18: not one righteous…] Jonah 4: Heart trouble10] Then said the LORD, Thou hast had pity on the gourd, for the which thou hast not laboured, neither madest it grow; which came up in a night, and perished in a night:11] And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and also much cattle?Gourd = comforts of home.Heart for the innocent;120,000 children … animals, livestock[Cf. Gen 18: not one righteous…]
188 Genesis 18:1-33 The Three Visitors Abraham recognized them:• Abraham hurried to them v.2– He hurried back to the tent v.6– He ran to the herd v.7– His servant hurried v.7• Abraham bowed low before them v.2• He got water to wash their feet v.4• He served them– freshly baked bread v.6– a choice calf v.7– curds and milk v.8• He stood while they were eating v.8; cf. vv.1-2All this suggests that he perceived who his visitors were.
189 Genesis 18:17-19 The Three Visitors 17] And the LORD said, Shall I hide from Abraham that thing which I do;18] Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?19] For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgment; that the LORD may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him.Amos 3:7 Surely the Lord GOD will do nothing, but he revealeth his secret unto his servants the prophets.
190 Genesis 18:20-24 The Three Visitors 20] And the LORD said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous;21] I will go down now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto me; and if not, I will know.22] And the men turned their faces from thence, and went toward Sodom: but Abraham stood yet before the LORD.23] And Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked?24] Peradventure there be fifty righteous within the city: wilt thou also destroy and not spare the place for the fifty righteous that are therein?A very important principle is laid down here.[Abraham intercedes for the righteous — which includes Lot.]
191 Genesis 18:25-29 The Three Visitors 25] That be far from thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked: and that the righteous should be as the wicked, that be far from thee: Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?26] And the LORD said, If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will spare all the place for their sakes.27] And Abraham answered and said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, which am but dust and ashes:28] Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous: wilt thou destroy all the city for lack of five? And he said, If I find there forty and five, I will not destroy it.29] And he spake unto him yet again, and said, Peradventure there shall be forty found there. And he said, I will not do it for forty’s sake.
192 Genesis 18:30-33 The Three Visitors 30] And he said unto him, Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak: Peradventure there shall thirty be found there. And he said, I will not do it, if I find thirty there.31] And he said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord: Peradventure there shall be twenty found there. And he said, I will not destroy it for twenty’s sake.32] And he said, Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak yet but this once: Peradventure ten shall be found there. And he said, I will not destroy it for ten’s sake.A very important principle: The two angels will spend an entire chapter (Gen 19) getting Lot out of there before they can accomplish their assigned mission![What does this imply regarding the church and the Tribulation?]33] And the LORD went his way, as soon as he had left communing with Abraham: and Abraham returned unto his place.
193 Jonah: The EpilogueIn 722 B.C., the next generation (~37 years later) Assyria destroyed Israel (the Northern 10 Tribe Kingdom);Nahum, the prophet, was sent to Judah (the Southern Kingdom);– 185,000 Assyrians slaughtered in one night by an Angel strolling through their camp as they laid siege to Jerusalem;– Senecherib never tries to take Judah again; God wouldn’t permit it… (Isa 37:33-37)– In 612 B.C. Assyria fell to a coalition of the Medes, Scythians, and Babylon…
194 Jonah: Types and the like … Messianic (Mt 12:40)National Israel1) Great Missionary Book of the OT (read at Yom Kippur).2) Chosen of God (Deut 14:2; Ezek 20:3)3) Commission (Isa 43:10-12; 44:8)4) Disobedient to Will of God(Ex 32:1-4; Jdg 2:11; Eze 6:1; Mk 7:6)5) Found among Gentiles (Deut 4:27; Ezek 12:15)6) Heathen come to know God (Rom 11:11)7) Miraculously preserved(Hos 3:3; Jer 30:11; 31:35f; Deut 28:58)Jonah = Type of UsBackslidden; Yet, Resurrected; then Fruitful.
195 See to it that nothing hinders you from fulfilling the work that God has given you.... Keep about your work.Do not flinch because the lion roars;Do not stop to throw stones at the devil's dogs;Do not waste away your time chasing the devil's rabbits.Do your work.Let liars lie...Let the devil do his worst;God has never bidden you to defend your character.God has not set you at work to contradict falsehoods which Satan and his servants may start to peddle.If you do those things, you will end up doing nothing else;Then, you will be at work for yourself and not for the Lord.Anonymous
196 Jonah Chapter 4 – Questions (Missler) Study Questions1) What was wrong with Jonah’s attitude throughout this book?2) What are the main lessons of the “gourd,” the worm(s), and the east wind?3) Did God love the Ninevites? (How do we know?)Why did He pronounce judgment upon them?4) Why was this chapter included in the Book of Jonah?
197 Jonah Chapter 4 – Questions (Missler) Discussion Questions (“Where two people agree, one is redundant.”)Did God scold Jonah for his bad attitude?Why? How did God deal with it?2) Are there “gourds, worms, and the east wind(s)” in our own personal lives?How do we deal with them?3) What are the eschatological implications of the removal of Lot prior to the judgment on Sodom and Gomorrah?Research ProjectsCompile a list of comparable examples of “gourds,” the worms, and the east wind(s), elsewhere in the Bible.(Answer the “so what” question for each.)