2 Short story definition an invented prose narrative that is shorter than a novelcan be read in one sittingusually deals with a few charactersoften concentrates on the creation of mood rather than plot
3 Plot The chain of related events that take place in a story. Built around conflict
5 Exposition-gives the background of the storyRising Action-introduces complications; builds suspenseClimax-the turning point of the storysuspense reaches its peakFalling Action and Resolutionresolves the conflictties up loose ends
6 Conflict Struggle between opposing forces. Complications build the reader’s excitement
7 Types of Conflict External -Man vs. Man -Man vs. Nature -Man vs. Obstacle or Society-Man vs. FateInternal-Man vs. Self
8 Methods of Characterization Creating Believable Characters Indirectphysical appearancespeech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of the characterspeech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of other charactersDirectthe narrator’s direct comments about a character
9 Types of CharactersMain or MinorProtagonist or AntagonistRound or FlatDynamic or Static*Stereotypes=Stock Characters*
10 Settingtime and placeputs the reader in the story by giving the reader the feeling of being in the situation.creates atmosphere by the positive or negative feelings associated with the place.
11 Point of View Who is telling the story? the vantage point from which the story is tolddetermines how much we, the readers, know about the characters
12 1st Person Narrator is a character in the story. Narrator uses first-person pronouns, I, me, my, we, us, our to refer to himself or herself.Narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character and speaks directly to reader.
13 3rd Person Limited Narrator does not participate in action of story. Narrator does not refer to himself or herself.Narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character, but readers are able to maintain some emotional distance from the character.
14 3rd Person OmniscientNarrator does not participate in action of story.Narrator does not refer to himself or herself.Narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all characters; readers get insight into several characters.
16 A symbol is a person, a place, an activity, or an object that stands for something beyond itself. A motif is a recurring element that help to develop the novel’s themes.Example: Birds are a motif in Alfred Hitchcock’s films.
17 Symbols Some clues that an element may have symbolic significance: REPETITIONEMPHASISASSOCIATION WITH SOMETHING ELSE IN THE NOVEL (CONSISTENT OR REPEATED)AN INEXPLICABLE OR UNUSUAL QUALITY
18 ThemeIn literature, theme is a perception about life or human nature that the writer wants to share with the reader.In most cases, the theme is not stated directly but must be inferred.Themes can be revealed bya story’s titlekey phrases and statements about big ideasthe ways the characters change and the lessons they learn about life