Presentation on theme: "Cellular Respiration Conversion of Chemical Energy in organic compounds (foods) to chemical energy of ATP, usable by cells."— Presentation transcript:
Cellular Respiration Conversion of Chemical Energy in organic compounds (foods) to chemical energy of ATP, usable by cells.
9-3 : Respiration How does glycolysis produce ATP? How is ATP produced in aerobic respiration? Why is fermentation important? Cellular respiration is the process used by humans and other organisms to release the energy stored in the food they consume
Cellular respiration ALL cells break down complex organic (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) (foods) compounds into simpler molecules. Cells (catabolism) use some of the energy that is released in (from C-C) this process to make ATP. (happens in respiration and fermentation)
Aerobic Cellular Respiration Aerobic – requires oxygen Anaerobic – does not need oxygen Cellular respiration – occurs in the cell, in eukaryotic cells it is in the mitochondria. It does not refer to ‘breathing’ although it requires oxygen.
Parts of Respiration Glycolysis In cytoplasm, no oxygen necessary, ALL cells Splits a glucose molecule Generates 2 ATP and 2 pyruvates ( pyruvic acids )
Kreb’s cycle In matrix of mitochondria, needs mitochondria does not require oxygen Splits C-C bonds ( in acetyl ) Generates some ATP, lots of NADH and FADH 2 and CO 2 as waste
Electron transport chain (ETC) On the inner mitochondrial membrane Electron transport moves e- from carrier to carrier in the membrane Generates ATP Requires oxygen as the final e- acceptor Also makes water
fermentation If oxygen is missing – ETC can not proceed. This causes a build up in NADH. In order to recycle NADH to NAD+ and run the Kreb’s cycle, cells will use an alternative pathway called fermentation. Must have correct enzymes. Forms Lactic acid fermentation ( muscles – lactic acid) Alcoholic fermentation (yeast and bacteria – alcohol)
Energy All cells need/ use ATP ATP is adenosine tri phosphate and stores energy in high energy phosphate bonds 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories Glycolysis alone is only 3.5% efficient Complete oxidation is 66% efficient Car engines are around 25% efficient Cell work generates lots of heat
S u m m a r y C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0 + energy C(H 2 O) n “food is burned” producing “exhaust” and “energy” needs oxygen ATP & heat
Compare and contrast Respiration Respiration All eukaryotic All cells do glycolysis Carbs and oxygen IN Water and CO2 OUT Mitochondria Inner membrane and matrix 3 parts ETC is final step; makes ATP Releases energy from C-C Cycle; Krebs, separates C ATP, NADH and FADH2 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Only plant cells ? Algae and ? bacteria Carbs and oxygen OUT Water and CO2 IN Chloroplast Thylakoid membrane and stroma 2 parts Light reaction has ETC and makes ATP Stores light energy as C-C Cycle; Calvin, connects C NADPH