9 CARBOHYDRATES Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (C,H,O) Include sugars and starches.
10 CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides are simple sugars. Monosaccharides are the building blocks for all larger carbsMonomers of CarbohydratesDisaccharides & Polysaccharides include starches, cellulose, and glycogen.
11 CARBOHYDRATE Functions Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells.Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure.Polymer (starch)Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure.Polymer (cellulose)Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structuremonomer
12 CARBOHYDRATES Summary – 3 Types of Carbohydrates 1. monosaccharides – single sugar (monomer)Ex. Glucose, fructose, galactose2. Disaccharide: 2 simple sugarsEx. Sucrose (table sugar) maltose3. polysaccharides: 3 or more sugars (complex carbs)Ex. Cellulose – used in cell wallsStarch stores energy in plantsGlycogen – stored energy in animals
13 LIPIDSOrganic compounds made up of C, H, & O, but not in any fixed ratio.The building blocks of lipids are fatty acids.Usually 3 fatty acids combine with one glycerol to form a triglyceride.properties of fats and oils are determined by the fatty acids that make them up
14 LIPIDSLipids are unique because they are the only macromolecule that are not polymers!Triglycerides make a group, not a chain3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol
19 Lipid FunctionOften called fats or oils, but are large macromolecules with 3 primary functions:1. broken down as a source of energy2. make up cell membranes (phospholipids)3. used to make hormones
20 LIPIDS Phospholipids make up all cell membranes. Polar phosphate “head”Nonpolar fatty acid “tails”Phospholipid
21 PROTEINS Organic compounds that contain C, H, O & N. Every cell contains proteinMade up of amino acids (monomer)Functions of protein:Used in structural components.Messengers and receptors on the cell membraneDefend against diseaseAct as facilitators for chemical reactions (ENZYMES)
22 PROTEINS Amino acids the building blocks of proteins!! They consist of a central carbon atom with a H, a – COOH, a NH2 and a “R” group attached.The “R” group is different for each of the 20 different amino acids.Carboxyl groupAmino group
23 PROTEINSPeptide Bond = holds together amino acids into a large macromolecule called a polypeptide chain.Longer polypeptides are called proteins and can be made up of 50 – 300 amino acids.
24 ProteinsThe order of amino acids give a protein its shape and the shape determines the protein’s function.Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function.Or cause protein NOT to functionEnzymes = Proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactionsWithout enzymes chemical reactions would occur too slowly for life to exist.
25 NUCLEIC ACIDS Organic molecule made up of C,H,O,N,& P Passed from parent to offspring, one copy from each parent for a total of 2 complete sets.Nucleic acids determine amino acid sequence in proteins which in turn control all life processesDNA forms the genes or units of genetic material that determine your characteristics
26 Nucleic AcidsNucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids (monomers)Each nucleotide is made up of 3 parts:A 5 Carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)A phosphate groupA nitrogen base ( a ring containing C, H, & N)A phosphate groupnitrogen-containing molecule, called a basedeoxyribose (sugar)
27 NUCLEIC ACIDS RNA – Ribose NUCLEIC acid DNA Bases: Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil.Uracil replaces Thymine in RNADNA –Deoxyribose NUCLEIC ACIDRNA –Ribose NUCLEIC acid