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Macromolecules Carbon based molecules

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules Carbon based molecules"— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules Carbon based molecules

2 Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

3 Introduction to Biomolecules

4 Carbon Atoms have unique bonding properties
Forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures: straight chain branched chain ring

5 Carbon

6 Carbon Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together Monomers are the individual subunits. Polymers are made of many monomers.

7 * Carbon based molecules are called organic compounds.
Organic Compound = compound containing C, H, O and sometimes N, P, S Macromolecule = very large molecule made up of multiple organic compounds

8 4 Types of Macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4
4 Types of Macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

9 CARBOHYDRATES Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (C,H,O)
Include sugars and starches.

10 CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides are simple sugars.
Monosaccharides are the building blocks for all larger carbs Monomers of Carbohydrates Disaccharides & Polysaccharides include starches, cellulose, and glycogen.

Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells. Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure. Polymer (starch) Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure. Polymer (cellulose) Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structure monomer

12 CARBOHYDRATES Summary – 3 Types of Carbohydrates
1. monosaccharides – single sugar (monomer) Ex. Glucose, fructose, galactose 2. Disaccharide: 2 simple sugars Ex. Sucrose (table sugar) maltose 3. polysaccharides: 3 or more sugars (complex carbs) Ex. Cellulose – used in cell walls Starch stores energy in plants Glycogen – stored energy in animals

13 LIPIDS Organic compounds made up of C, H, & O, but not in any fixed ratio. The building blocks of lipids are fatty acids. Usually 3 fatty acids combine with one glycerol to form a triglyceride. properties of fats and oils are determined by the fatty acids that make them up

14 LIPIDS Lipids are unique because they are the only macromolecule that are not polymers! Triglycerides make a group, not a chain 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol



17 Lipids Saturated fat = Carbon atoms are joined by single bonds (usually solid fats) Unsaturated fat = Carbon chain contains double or triple bonds (usually oils)

18 Saturated and Unsaturated Fats

19 Lipid Function Often called fats or oils, but are large macromolecules with 3 primary functions: 1. broken down as a source of energy 2. make up cell membranes (phospholipids) 3. used to make hormones

20 LIPIDS Phospholipids make up all cell membranes.
Polar phosphate “head” Nonpolar fatty acid “tails” Phospholipid

21 PROTEINS Organic compounds that contain C, H, O & N.
Every cell contains protein Made up of amino acids (monomer) Functions of protein: Used in structural components. Messengers and receptors on the cell membrane Defend against disease Act as facilitators for chemical reactions (ENZYMES)

22 PROTEINS Amino acids the building blocks of proteins!!
They consist of a central carbon atom with a H, a – COOH, a NH2 and a “R” group attached. The “R” group is different for each of the 20 different amino acids. Carboxyl group Amino group

23 PROTEINS Peptide Bond = holds together amino acids into a large macromolecule called a polypeptide chain. Longer polypeptides are called proteins and can be made up of 50 – 300 amino acids.

24 Proteins The order of amino acids give a protein its shape and the shape determines the protein’s function. Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function. Or cause protein NOT to function Enzymes = Proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions Without enzymes chemical reactions would occur too slowly for life to exist.

25 NUCLEIC ACIDS Organic molecule made up of C,H,O,N,& P
Passed from parent to offspring, one copy from each parent for a total of 2 complete sets. Nucleic acids determine amino acid sequence in proteins which in turn control all life processes DNA forms the genes or units of genetic material that determine your characteristics

26 Nucleic Acids Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids (monomers) Each nucleotide is made up of 3 parts: A 5 Carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) A phosphate group A nitrogen base ( a ring containing C, H, & N) A phosphate group nitrogen-containing molecule, called a base deoxyribose (sugar)

DNA Bases: Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. Uracil replaces Thymine in RNA DNA – Deoxyribose NUCLEIC ACID RNA – Ribose NUCLEIC acid

28 Circle a nucelotide



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