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National Economy 1800-1850.

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Presentation on theme: "National Economy 1800-1850."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Economy

2 Population Growth, Between 1800 & 1825 the U.S. population doubled It doubled again by 1850 Reasons High birth rate Immigrants from Europe after 1830, especially Germans and Britons

3 Transportation Roads Canals Pennsylvania’s Lancaster Turnpike, 1790’s
Success stimulated other private toll roads Few interstate roads built due to opposition National, or Cumberland Road Canals Erie Canal, 1825 Success stimulated more canal building which resulted in: Lower food prices in East More immigrants going West Stronger economic ties between East & West

4 Transportation Steamboats Railroads 1807 Clermont, Robert Fulton
Commercially operated steamboat lines soon developed Railroads First railroads in late 1820s Stimulated growth of western towns: Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit, & Chicago

5 Growth of Industry 19th Century
Began in early 19th Century Surpassed agriculture by mid-century World leader by end of the century!!!

6 Industrial Growth Mechanical inventions Corporations Factory system
Patent laws encouraged inventors Eli Whitney Cotton gin Interchangeable parts Corporations New York, 1811, first corporation law Other states followed Facilitated the raising of large sums of money Factory system Samuel Slater, 1st U.S. factory, 1791 The embargo, War of 1812, & tariffs allowed factories to proper New England led American industry

7 Industrial Growth Labor Unions
Lowell, Massachusetts employed young farm women Imitated by other factories until mid-century when began hiring immigrants Unions Trade (craft) unions organized as early as 1790s Widespread discontent among factory workers Long hours Low pay Poor working conditions Early unions wanted 10 hour workday

8 Industrial Growth Obstacles to labor unions
Immigrant replacement workers State laws outlawing unions Frequent economic depressions with high unemployment

9 Commercial Agriculture
Early 1800s farming became more commercial Cheap land & easy credit New markets back East due to transportation improvements Cotton Eli Whitney’s cotton gin made cotton more profitable than any other crop Southerners purchased new land and new slaves Cotton was sold to British textile factories

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