2 Population Growth,Between 1800 & 1825 the U.S. population doubledIt doubled again by 1850ReasonsHigh birth rateImmigrants from Europe after 1830, especially Germans and Britons
3 Transportation Roads Canals Pennsylvania’s Lancaster Turnpike, 1790’s Success stimulated other private toll roadsFew interstate roads built due to oppositionNational, or Cumberland RoadCanalsErie Canal, 1825Success stimulated more canal building which resulted in:Lower food prices in EastMore immigrants going WestStronger economic ties between East & West
4 Transportation Steamboats Railroads 1807 Clermont, Robert Fulton Commercially operated steamboat lines soon developedRailroadsFirst railroads in late 1820sStimulated growth of western towns:Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit, & Chicago
5 Growth of Industry 19th Century Began in early 19th CenturySurpassed agriculture by mid-centuryWorld leader by end of the century!!!
6 Industrial Growth Mechanical inventions Corporations Factory system Patent laws encouraged inventorsEli WhitneyCotton ginInterchangeable partsCorporationsNew York, 1811, first corporation lawOther states followedFacilitated the raising of large sums of moneyFactory systemSamuel Slater, 1st U.S. factory, 1791The embargo, War of 1812, & tariffs allowed factories to properNew England led American industry
7 Industrial Growth Labor Unions Lowell, Massachusetts employed young farm womenImitated by other factories until mid-century when began hiring immigrantsUnionsTrade (craft) unions organized as early as 1790sWidespread discontent among factory workersLong hoursLow payPoor working conditionsEarly unions wanted 10 hour workday
8 Industrial Growth Obstacles to labor unions Immigrant replacement workersState laws outlawing unionsFrequent economic depressions with high unemployment
9 Commercial Agriculture Early 1800s farming became more commercialCheap land & easy creditNew markets back East due to transportation improvementsCottonEli Whitney’s cotton gin made cotton more profitable than any other cropSoutherners purchased new land and new slavesCotton was sold to British textile factories