Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids. Carbohydrates Sugars and starches Consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen 2:1 ratio (2 H for every 1O) Types."— Presentation transcript:
Polysaccharides Many simple sugars bonded together Excess sugar is stored as polysaccharides. Formed by joining monosaccharide units. Examples: cellulose (plant starch) glycogen (animal starch)
Polysaccharide examples: Cellulose Starch Glycogen hundreds of glucose molecules hundreds to thousands of glucose molecules
Hydrolysis When polysaccharides are split apart to form monosaccharides by adding water. Hydrolysis= “hydro” water/ “lysis” to split Molecule of water is consumed when the bond between monosaccharides is split.
Functions of Lipids Lipids store energy (C-H) bonds Form biological membranes Chemical messengers Commonly known as fats, oils, and waxes
Structure of Lipids 3 fatty-acid molecules and one glycerol molecule combined will produce lipids and water. Fatty-acids- building blocks of lipids / long chains of hydrogen and carbon atoms that have a carboxyl group attached. Carboxyl group- made of 1 carbon atom, 1 hydrogen atom, and 2 oxygen atoms.
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Lipids Saturated lipids are C-C Solid at room temperature. Examples: Butter, animal fat Unsaturated lipids have at least one C=C Liquid at room temperature Examples: Oils
Other Lipids Examples: -Cholesterol -Steroids -Waxes -Phospholipids (cell membrane)
Sterols and Phospholipids Sterols- provide membrane support and serve as hormones. Examples: cholesterol and steroids Phospholipids- made of hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. (water loving and hating) –Important in membrane structures
What are proteins? Proteins- organic molecules made of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Polymers of amino acids.
Amino acid- building blocks of protien / made of an amino group Made up of: - Amino Group (-NH 2 ) - Carboxyl Group (-COOH) - H atom - “R” group (Always varies) 20 different amino acids, which can combine to form an amazing at least 1000 different proteins that make up living tissue
Nucleic acids- large organic molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorous atoms. –Made up of nucleotides Nucleotides- building blocks of nucleic acids / made of a 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. 2 types of nucleic acids DNA RNA
Elements that make up all living organisms!!! Acronym
Function of Nucleic Acids DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid RNA- ribonucleic acid Store and transmit genetic information.
Structure of Nucleic Acids DNA DNA has 4 base pairs: G = Guanine A = Adenine C = Cytosine T = Thyamine
Structure of Nucleotides “double ring”“single ring” (video)(video)
Quiz 1. What is ONE function of a carbohydrate in an animal? 2. What is a lipid? Where would you find lipids in an animal? 3. What are the FIVE elements that make up living matter? 4. What are three parts of a nucleotide?