4 Levels of Organization Species: can breed and produce fertile offspringPopulation: same species in same areaCommunity: different populations in same areaEcosystem: all organisms (biotic) in particular place; includes nonliving (abiotic) surroundingsBiome: group of ecosystems with same climate (temperature and precipitation) and similar communitiesBiosphere: all portions of the planet where life exists (land, water, air, atmosphere)
5 Basic TerminologyEcosystem – All the biotic and abiotic factors in an environmentHeat Energy – Form of “lost” energy, 90% of available energy is lost in the form of heat.Chemical Energy – Glucose transfer in the food chainLight Energy – Originating source of Energy from the sun (Main source of energy)
6 Energy Flow SummaryEnergy flows in one direction through an ecosystem, from the sun or inorganic compounds to producers (organisms that can make their own food) through various levels to consumers (organisms that rely on other organisms for food).
7 Energy Flow Producers: Autotrophs Consumers: Heterotrophs Photosynthesis Vs. ChemosynthesisConsumers: HeterotrophsHerbivoresCarnivoresOmnivoresDetritivoresDecomposersScavengerExamples of Photosynthesizers – Plants, Some Protists, and Some BacteriaExamples of Chemosynthesizers – Some BacteriaHerbivore – Eat Only Plants ex) SheepCarnivore – Each only Meat ex) Hawk, LionOmnivore – Each Both Plants and Animals ex) Humans, RatsDetritivore – Feed on Dead and Decaying Matter, Return Nutrients ex) Worms and Millipeds, Sea StarsDecomposer – Break Down Dead and decaying Matter ex) Bacteria and FungusScavenger – Tears Up Dead Matter ex) Vulture
11 Energy PyramidShows the relative amount ofenergy available at each trophiclevel. Organisms use about 90percent of thisenergy forlife processes.Only 10% is transferred.
12 Biomass Pyramid Represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, the greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid.
13 Pyramid of Numbers Shows the relative number of individual organisms at eachtrophic level.
14 Cycling of Nutrient and Matter Remember: Energy flows in one direction and matter cycles.
15 Recycling in the Biosphere Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled.Matter moves through an ecosystem in biogeochemical cycles.Matter is recycled because systems do not use up matter, they transform it.
16 Four Main Cycles Water Cycle Nutrient Cycles Carbon Cycle Nitrogen CyclePhosphorus Cycle
17 Water Cycle1. When rain falls on the ground, it either soaks into the soil or runs across the surface of the soil. When rainwater runs across the land, what body of water might collect the rain?2. From here, where might the water flow?3. After the rain, the sun comes out and the land dries. Where does the water that had been on the land go?
18 Water Cycle Water moves between the ocean, atmosphere, and land. Steps of the water cycle:Evaporation TranspirationCondensationPrecipitationRunoffSeepageGroundwater
19 Water CycleSketch a simple diagram of the water cycle in your notes.
20 Nutrient CyclesEvery organism needs nutrients to grow and function. Like water, nutrients are also transferred in cycles.3 Nutrient Cycles:CarbonNitrogenPhosphorus-mostly in rocks and soil minerals
22 Carbon CycleFour main types of processes move carbon through its cycle:Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen.Geochemical processes, such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans.
23 Carbon CycleMixed biogeochemical processes, such as the burial and decomposition of dead organisms and their conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum (fossil fuels), store carbon underground.Human activities, such as mining, cutting and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
25 Nitrogen CycleBacteria that live in the soil and on the roots of legume plants convert nitrogen gas to ammonia through nitrogen fixation.When organisms die, their ammonia can be converted back to nitrogen gas through denitrification.
26 Phosphorus CyclePhosphorus is essential to living organisms because it forms part of important life-sustaining molecules such as DNA and RNA.Phosphorus remains mostly on land in rock and soil minerals, and in ocean sediments.It is not very common in the biospherephosphorus exists in the form of inorganic phosphate.As the rocks and sediments gradually wear down, phosphate is released.On land, some of the phosphate washes into rivers and streams, where it dissolves.The phosphate eventually makes its way to the oceans, where it is used by marine organisms.