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Kongsberg Simrad Multibeam Echo SoundersThe Evolution of the Kongsberg Simrad Multibeam Echo Sounders by Dr. Freddy Pøhner © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
KONGSBERG main business areas25. april 2017 Maritime Defence & Aerospace © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Satellite Positioning &Kongsberg Maritime Business Support Torfinn Kildal President Steinar Aabelvik CFO Human Resources/Administration: Finn H Kristensen Quality Management: Finn H Kristensen IS/IT systems: Steinar Aabelvik Communication: Gunvor H Midtbø Divisions Marine Electronics Jan E Berner Sales & Marketing Tor Erik Sørensen Dynamic Positioning & Navigation Ole Gunnar Hvamb Marine Automation Lars Gørvell-Dahll Process Automation Nils E Standal Hydroacoustics Rolf Arne Klepaker Satellite Positioning & AIS Bjørn Fossum Marine IT Bjørn T Frøshaug © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
We participate where the action is25. april 2017 Global presence HEAD OFFICE OFFICES © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Kongsberg Maritime premises in Horten, Norway© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
M/K Echo, a 30 m vessel for test and demonstrations© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
“Pingeline”, a 32 feet hydrographic launch, for testing© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Kongsberg transducer test tank with EM 1002 transducer being tested© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Testing of a Multibeam Echo Sounder System© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
In-door test tank: 10 x 6 x 6 meters© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Hydrographic ApplicationsMapping of Rivers and Canals Marine Geology Scientific research Habitat mapping Exclusive Economic Zones mapping (EEZ) Detailed Mapping (ROV, AUV applications Multibeam Echo Sounders Nautical charting Single Beam Echo Sounders Operation Support: Cable Laying Sub Bottom Profiler Marine Data Management Processing software Route Surveying Operation Support: Dredging Port and Harbour Surveying Mapping of Rivers and Canals © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Launching sequence of multibeam modelsEM 100 EM 3000 EM 300 EM 1000+EM 12 EM 121 EM 120+EM2000 SBP 120 EM 3002 EM 710 time © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
The Quality of a sounding process(1):Seabed mapping process Sounding process (on ship) Data processing Echosounder Positioning Motion compensation Sound vel modeling Seabed Terrain Terrain model = ? = Plotter Workstation Colour Postscript Printer How well does the terrain model represent the seabed terrain? © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
The Quality of a sounding process(2):The terrain model is a mathematical surface based upon a set of depth soundings The best terrain model is obtained by: A. Precise depth soundings B. Smallest possible acoustic footprint for each sounding C. Precise positioning of each sounding D. High density of soundings E. Even spacing between soundings These principles have been and still are the guidelines for most of our developments © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Acoustic principles developments1986/EM 100: Basic properties of the Simrad multibeams: Phase + amplitude bottom detector Automatic gain steering and bottom tracking Split beam phase Full beam amplitude Phase Detect © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Refraction of Acoustic BeamsSnell’s law of refraction: sin(Ai)/Ci=constant All models have had built-in real time compensation. Early models used lookuptable + interpolation, accurate realtime calculation since 1997. © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Moving vessel profilers: Frequent sampling of sound velocity profilesMultibeams interface MVP’s, no interruption of sounding when a new profile is entered (due to realtime calculation of refraction) © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
The Mills Cross array was introduced with EM 12 in 1990Forward direction on ship Transducer array configuration Transmit beam Receive beam Effective beam footprint Transmit Receive © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Transmission process: FRDT principleThis was introduced with EM 12 in 1990. Advantages: Higher source level (=increased range) +reduced problems with sidelobes from the specular return. Transmit in sectors, and use different frequencies Requires a larger transducer + direct steering of all transducer elements in 2 dimensions © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Equi-distant beamspacingEquiangle Equidistant In-between Equi- distant beam spacing was introduced as an improvement to the EM 12 + EM 1000 in the early 1990’s © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Equidistant beamspacingExample at 10m depth crosstrack beam spacing 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 Angle 5.00 15.00 25.00 35.00 45.00 55.00 65.00 beam angle crosstrack distance beam spacing EM 3002 beam spacing Reson 8125 Improved sounding density in the outer part of the swath © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Adapting the system to varying depths and bottom conditionsManual Mode Sector fixed to operator set angles Auto Mode Sector limited by: Max angle set by operator Max coverage (deg) set by operator Signal to Noise Ratio Introduced early 1990’s Sector Coverage © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Beamformed seabed imagery (Snippets)2 different Data Sets are derived: A. Beam Intensity=Mean Backscatter Strength over the Footprint B. Sonar Image Data= All the individual Backscatter values Beam Acoustic Footprint of Beam Range Resolution cell This was introduced in 1990 for EM 12 and EM 1000 © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Bathymetry and Sonar Image combined in 3DEM 12D - Surveyed by IFREMER Ifremer pioneered the development of software to process Seabed imagery © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
EM 300 (30 kHz) Multibeam Bathymetry & BackscatterBathymetry & Imagery EM 300 (30 kHz) Multibeam Bathymetry & Backscatter Data courtesy of C & C Technologies Inc. © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
1995/96: EM 3000 was introduced Single Dual This step was made possible by availability of more compact electronics. A sonar head has a mills cross transducer array + 2 electronic boards: 1 for transmission and 1 for reception. CHS was the first client. © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Calculation of Depth DataTransducer mounting pos + angles Surface sound vel. Sound vel. profile T=2way travel time Sounding depth (z) Rel. pos. of sounding (x,y) Co-ordinate transformations and modelling of transmission through water Ar=Beam angle rel. transducer Heave Roll Pitch Exact algorithm was introduced for EM 3000 in 1995, allowed for free mounting angles of sonar heads © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Test arrangement for they German Waterways Authority© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Accuracy as function of swath width© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Test Result from a Lock Survey Result Construction Drawing© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
A multielement transmit array is required, Pitch Stabilisation Introduced from 1990 Stabilization for pitching is obtained by steering the transmit beam electronically forward or aft at the time of transmission, based upon input from the motion sensor. A multielement transmit array is required, + several steerable transmitters © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
The effect of pitch stabilisationSounding patterns on the bottom Competitor result, Without pitch stabilisation EM 3002 result © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Roll Stabilization Since 1986Each Receive Beam is stabilized for roll by the Beamformer, using input in real time from the Motion Sensor. All beam pointing angles are thus constant, related to the vertical axis. The roll angles will be different for the different beams © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
The effect of roll stabilised beamsUnstabilized swath Effective Swath Unstabilized: The swath is rolling sideways, and the effective swath is then reduced. Stabilized: The swath is not influenced by roll movements © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Compensating for vessel yaw movementsNo compensation 2000m Calculation of sounding pattern on bottom Ship speed: 10 knots Depth: m Pitch: +/-5 degrees, 15sec period Yaw: +/-6 degrees, 200sec period 1000m -1000m Pitch compensation only Fulll compensation for pitch and yaw 2000m 1000m -1000m 1000m 2000m -1000m (As EM 120) © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
EM 120 and EM 300 Multibeam echo soundersWithout Yaw stabilisation From 1997 With Yaw stabilisation Calculated by UNB, Canada © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
There is extra cost to produce yaw stabilized TX beamsTX Beam forming The transmit transducer is made of many single elements. On some multibeams a number of single elements are connected to make one stave. This allows for pitch compensation (One cable pair per stave) Other multibeams has individual control of all the single elements in the array. This may be used to form several transmit beams and to compensate for roll, pitch and yaw. (One cable pair per element) There is extra cost to produce yaw stabilized TX beams © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
System accuracy improves over time© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
TRB 32 Transmit/Receive Board for 32 channelsP1 P2 Kongsberg develops its own ASIC’s and HYBRID circuits for the sonar front-end boards © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
64 channel transmitter boardPlugs for connection to transducer elements Backplane P1 Backplane P2 Transmitter hybrid circuits Each transmitter is a special purpose HYBRID circuit © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
EM 1002 Optional Retractable Hull UnitThe hull unit provides: Transducer protection during transit Good acoustic conditions when extended Active pitch compensation of beams It is mounted on a cylindrical trunk which is welded to the ship’s hull Max survey speed with Hull Unit is 10 knots © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
“Kilo Moana” - EM 1002 transducer being fitted© KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Transducer Gondola 25. april 2017 © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017 1
Titanium plates for light protection against ice was introduced Ice breaker solutions Titanium plates for light protection against ice was introduced in 1990. Ice breaker solutions have been developed since, for 12 and 30kHz © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
EM 3000D Bow Installation 25. april 2017 © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017 1
The acoustic near-field – Beam focussingWithout focussing: Inside the near field the beam is as wide as the physical size of the transducer Near Field L Beam- width © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Beam focusing Introduced from 2004 Focal pointwidth L Near Field Dynamic focusing: The focus point is shifted as function of time/range Introduced from 2004 © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Beam focusing of transmit beams25. april 2017 Focusing in the nearfield on transmit is feasible by using three separate transmit sectors per ping From 2005 Focus range left sector Focus range central sector Focus range right sector Footprint alongtrack © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
The Human Interface (MERLIN - Unix)Monitoring Control Depth Profile Geographic window Beam Intensity/ Quality Waterfall By choosing AUTO for parameters, the system will adapt to changing depth © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Operators Display (SIS- Windows or Linux)Gridded terrain model: 2D or 3D Signal strength Depth profile Raw hydrophone data 3D (waterfall) 2004-- Watercolumn (beamformed) Seabed Imagery © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Only stave data is recordedRaw data recorder The raw data recorder is mounted on the side of the transceiver cabinet. Introduced approx. 1999 Only stave data is recorded © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Processed result from raw data recorderWater column display processed from 1 ping with EM 300 Courtesy of Xavier Lurton, Ifremer © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Beamformed raw data can now be recorded and post processedEM 3002 Real time Water Column display Beamformed raw data can now be recorded and post processed © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Some recent improvementsBroad band transducers – composite ceramics Use of FM sweep/chirp as transmit waveforms High resolution beam processing Multiple sounding profiles per ping © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Composite ceramics for wide bandwidth25. april 2017 EM 710 Transmit Transducer 30-50% bandwidth can be obtained © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
FM sweep/chirp transmit pulsesThe use of FM sweep or chirp signals is being implemented on EM 710 as the first system It requires new beamforming algorithms, pulse compression, and increased capacity for transmitting long pulses. This is used to increase the energy content of the TX pulse. A longer range can be obtained without sacrifice of resolution © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
High resolution beam processingIn EM 3002 the number of soundings (254 per sonar head) is higher than the number of acoustic beams (160 per sonar head) This is a technique to increase and improve the system resolution. ”Soft” beams in between the acoustic beams are generated to produce the extra soundings. A special signal processing technique, high resolution beam processing, is used in order to reduce the acoustic footprint of each sounding, and produce soundings that are independent. The best horisontal system resolution is then approximately 20cm. © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
The full number of beams is maintained also when the swath is reduced.Full swathwidth Reduced swathwidth 254 soundings 254 soundings This is a unique feature. If the swath width is reduced – on purpose or due to maxrange – the full number of soundings is still produced inside the active swath. Result: A more dense pattern of soundings+ reduced footprint size of each sounding. © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Result example, 18m depth 120 degree swathData processing by QPS © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Result example, 18m depth 90 degree swathThe details are sharper! Data processing by QPS © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
Evolution of resolutionEM : 1.8 x 3.5 deg EM : 1 x 1 deg EM : 1.5 x 1.5 deg EM 300/ : 1 x 1 deg EM : 0.5 x 1 deg The no. of soundings/ping and the ping rate is increasing due to more computer power being available. EM 3002D and EM 710 will both be able to produce close to soundings per second. © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
SBP 120 Multibeam Sub Bottom Profiler25. april 2017 SBP 120 Multibeam Sub Bottom Profiler Receive beam width Transmit beamwidth EM 120 12 kHz SBP 120 2.5-7kHz Common receive aray Transmit beam Receive beam Effective beam footprint © KONGSBERG
Floating point receiver A/DSBP 120 block diagram 25. april 2017 Frequency 2.5 – 7 kHz Pulse forms: Chirp CW Ricker Floating point receiver A/D Arrays lengths: 8m degree beams 4m degree beams 2m – 12 degree beams © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
SBP120 - 3° Specular return / backscatter25. april 2017 Smooth surface layer Rough buried structure Illustrasjon av hvordan “sediment roughness” gjenspeiles i mottakervifta. Øverst et pent sedimentlag, nederst et veldig grovt lag – stein? Også tydelig langsskips naturligvis. Echogram Multiple beams © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
SBP 120-3°: Sloping terrain25. april 2017 SBP 120-3°: Sloping terrain Image ~4.5km alongtrack, ~450 ms ~ 335 m from top to bottom -> average slope along ~ - 4° Horisontalaksen utgjør ca 4.2 km Vertikal grid 25 ms, Penetrasjon ca 100 ms = 75 meter. Data © SHOM © KONGSBERG April 25, 2017
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