Presentation on theme: "Establishing Response to Intervention in Middle and High Schools: A Step-by-Step Guide Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org."— Presentation transcript:
1 Establishing Response to Intervention in Middle and High Schools: A Step-by-Step Guide Jim Wright
2 Workshop Agenda RTI & Secondary Schools: Introduction Creating Effective RTI Problem-Solving TeamsAssessment & Progress-Monitoring Across the TiersBuilding Classroom Teacher Capacity to Select & Implement InterventionsPromoting Student Engagement in the RTI ProcessPreparing Your School for RTI Systems-Level Change
3 Download the introductory PPT and handout from this workshop at:
4 Secondary Students: Unique Challenges… Struggling learners in middle and high school may:Have significant deficits in basic academic skillsLack higher-level problem-solving strategies and conceptsPresent with issues of school motivationShow social/emotional concerns that interfere with academicsHave difficulty with attendanceAre often in a process of disengaging from learning even as adults in school expect that those students will move toward being ‘self-managing’ learners…
5 Why Do Students Drop Out of School?: Student Survey Classes were not perceived as interesting (47 percent)Not motivated by teachers to ‘work hard’ (69 percent)Failing in school was a major factor in dropping out (35 percent)Had to get a job (32 percent)Became a parent (26 percent)Needed to care for a family member (22 percent)Source: Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J., & Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle, WA: Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008, from
6 Overlap Between ‘Policy Pathways’ & RTI Goals: Recommendations for Schools to Reduce Dropout Rates A range of high school learning options matched to the needs of individual learners: ‘different schools for different students’Strategies to engage parentsIndividualized graduation plans‘Early warning systems’ to identify students at risk of school failureA range of supplemental services/’intensive assistance strategies’ for struggling studentsAdult advocates to work individually with at-risk students to overcome obstacles to school completionSource: Bridgeland, J. M., DiIulio, J. J., & Morison, K. B. (2006). The silent epidemic: Perspectives of high school dropouts. Seattle, WA: Gates Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2008, from
7 School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event “It is increasingly accepted that dropout is best conceptualized as a long-term process, not an instantaneous event; however, most interventions are administered at a middle or high school level after problems are severe.”Source: Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., & Hess, R. (2008). Best practices in increasing the likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School Psychology - 5th Ed (pp ). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.. p.1090
8 Student Motivation & The Need for Intervention “A common response to students who struggle in sixth grade is to wait and hope they grow out of it or adapt, to attribute early struggles to the natural commotion of early adolescence and to temporary difficulties in adapting to new organizational structures of schooling, more challenging curricula and assessment, and less personalized attention. Our evidence clearly indicates that, at least in high-poverty urban schools, sixth graders who are missing 20% or more of the days, exhibiting poor behavior, or failing math or English do not recover. On the contrary, they drop out. This says that early intervention is not only productive but absolutely essential.”Source: Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist,42, 223–235. .
9 Five Core Components of RTI Service Delivery Student services are arranged in a multi-tier modelData are collected to assess student baseline levels and to make decisions about student progressInterventions are ‘evidence-based’The ‘procedural integrity’ of interventions is measuredRTI is implemented and developed at the school- and district-level to be scalable and sustainable over timeSource: Glover, T. A., & DiPerna, J. C. (2007). Service delivery for response to intervention: Core components and directions for future research. School Psychology Review, 36,
10 RTI ‘Pyramid of Interventions’ Tier 3: Intensive interventions. Students who are ‘non-responders’ to Tiers 1 & 2 are met on by the RTI Team.Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Tier 2 Individualized interventions. Subset of students receive group support targeting specific needs.Tier 1: Universal interventions. Available to all students in a classroom or school. Can consist of whole-group or individual strategies or supports.
11 Tier I Instruction/Interventions Are universal—available to all students.Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout the school.Are likely to be put into place by the teacher at the first sign that a student is struggling.All children have access to Tier 1 instruction/interventions. Teachers have the capability to use those strategies without requiring outside assistance.Tier 1 instruction/interventions encompass:The school’s core curriculum and all published or teacher-made materials used to deliver that curriculum.Teacher use of ‘whole-group’ teaching & management strategies.Teacher use of individualized strategies with specific students.Tier I instruction/interventions attempt to answer the question: Are routine classroom instructional strategies sufficient to help the student to achieve academic success?
12 Complementary RTI Models: Standard Treatment & Problem-Solving Protocols “The two most commonly used RTI approaches are (1) standard treatment and (2) problem-solving protocol. While these two approaches to RTI are sometimes described as being very different from each other, they actually have several common elements, and both fit within a problem-solving framework. In practice, many schools and districts combine or blend aspects of the two approaches to fit their needs.”Source: Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the needs of significantly struggling learners in high school. Washington, DC: National High School Center. Retrieved from p. 5
13 RTI Interventions: Standard-Treatment vs. Problem-Solving There are two different vehicles that schools can use to deliver RTI interventions:Standard-Protocol (Standalone Intervention). Programs based on scientifically valid instructional practices (‘standard protocol’) are created to address frequent student referral concerns. These services are provided outside of the classroom. A middle school, for example, may set up a structured math-tutoring program staffed by adult volunteer tutors to provide assistance to students with limited math skills. Students referred for a Tier II math intervention would be placed in this tutoring program. An advantage of the standard-protocol approach is that it is efficient and consistent: large numbers of students can be put into these group interventions to receive a highly standardized intervention. However, standard group intervention protocols often cannot be individualized easily to accommodate a specific student’s unique needs.Problem-solving (Classroom-Based Intervention). Individualized research-based interventions match the profile of a particular student’s strengths and limitations. The classroom teacher often has a large role in carrying out these interventions. A plus of the problem-solving approach is that the intervention can be customized to the student’s needs. However, developing intervention plans for individual students can be time-consuming.
14 Tier 2: Supplemental (Group-Based) Interventions (Standard Treatment Protocol) Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in small-group format. About 15% of students in the typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental intervention support.Group size for Tier 2 interventions is limited to 4-7 students. Students placed in Tier 2 interventions should have a shared profile of intervention need.The reading progress of students in Tier 2 interventions are monitored at least 1-2 times per month.Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.
15 Tier 3: Intensive Individualized Interventions (Problem-Solving Protocol) Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive offered in a school setting.Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions because:they are found to have a large skill gap when compared to their class or grade peers; and/orThey did not respond to interventions provided previously at Tiers 1 & 2.Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for sessions of 30 minutes. The student-teacher ratio is flexible but should allow the student to receive intensive, individualized instruction.The reading progress of students in Tier 3 interventions is monitored at least weekly.Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.
16 Middle & High School: Lack of Consensus on an RTI Model “Because RTI has thus far been implemented primarily in early elementary grades, it is not clear precisely what RTI might look like at the high school level.”Source: Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the needs of significantly struggling learners in high school. Washington, DC: National High School Center. Retrieved from p. 3
17 At the Federal Level: A ‘Hands-Off Approach to RTI Implementation “There are many RTI models and the regulations are written to accommodate the many different models that are currently in use. The Department does not mandate or endorse any particular model. Rather, the regulations provide States with the flexibility to adopt criteria that best meet local needs. Language that is more specific or prescriptive would not be appropriate. For example, while we recognize that rate of learning is often a key variable in assessing a child’s response to intervention, it would not be appropriate for the regulations to set a standard for responsiveness or improvement in the rate of learning.” pSource: U.S. Department of Education. (2006). Assistance to States for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities; final rule. 71 Fed. Reg. (August 14, 2006) 34 CFR Parts 300 and 301.
18 The Purpose of RTI in Secondary Schools: What Students Should It Serve? Early Identification. As students begin to show need for academic support, the RTI model proactively supports them with early interventions to close the skill or performance gap with peers.Chronically At-Risk. Students whose school performance is marginal across school years but who do not qualify for special education services are identified by the RTI Team and provided with ongoing intervention support.Special Education. Students who fail to respond to scientifically valid general-education interventions implemented with integrity are classified as ‘non-responders’ and found eligible for special education.
19 RTI Secondary: Top Tasks for Implementing RTI at the Middle & High School Level Jim Wright
32 Team Activity: Rate Your Secondary School’s ‘RTI Readiness’ In your elbow groups:Review the RTI Readiness Survey for Middle & High School.Rate your school on this survey.Discuss with your group how ‘RTI ready’ your school is at the present time.
33 Team Activity: Rate Your Secondary School’s ‘RTI Readiness’ In your elbow groups:Discuss the main points about RTI at the secondary level presented at this workshop.What are some strengths in your school that you believe will help you to implement RTI?What are some challenges that you believe may need to be overcome to implement RTI?
34 Instruction and Interventions within Response to Intervention Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
36 Schools Need to Review Tier 1 (Classroom) Interventions to Ensure That They Are Supported By ResearchThere is a lack of agreement about what is meant by ‘scientifically validated’ classroom (Tier I) interventions. Districts should establish a ‘vetting’ process—criteria for judging whether a particular instructional or intervention approach should be considered empirically based.Source: Fuchs, D., & Deshler, D. D. (2007). What we need to know about responsiveness to intervention (and shouldn’t be afraid to ask).. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(2),129–136.
37 What Are Appropriate Content-Area Tier 1 Universal Interventions for Secondary Schools? “High schools need to determine what constitutes high-quality universal instruction across content areas. In addition, high school teachers need professional development in, for example, differentiated instructional techniques that will help ensure student access to instruction interventions that are effectively implemented.”Source: Duffy, H. (August 2007). Meeting the needs of significantly struggling learners in high school. Washington, DC: National High School Center. Retrieved from p. 9
38 Essential Elements of Any Academic or Behavioral Intervention (‘Treatment’) Strategy: Method of delivery (‘Who or what delivers the treatment?’) Examples include teachers, paraprofessionals, parents, volunteers, computers.Treatment component (‘What makes the intervention effective?’) Examples include activation of prior knowledge to help the student to make meaningful connections between ‘known’ and new material; guide practice (e.g., Paired Reading) to increase reading fluency; periodic review of material to aid student retention.
39 Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations & Modifications: Sorting Them Out Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies that are used routinely with all students in a general-education setting are considered ‘core instruction’. High-quality instruction is essential and forms the foundation of RTI academic support. NOTE: While it is important to verify that good core instructional practices are in place for a struggling student, those routine practices do not ‘count’ as individual student interventions.
40 Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations & Modifications: Sorting Them Out Intervention. An academic intervention is a strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an existing skill to new situations or settings. An intervention can be thought of as “a set of actions that, when taken, have demonstrated ability to change a fixed educational trajectory” (Methe & Riley-Tillman, 2008; p. 37).
41 Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations & Modifications: Sorting Them Out Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to help the student to fully access and participate in the general-education curriculum without changing the instructional content and without reducing the student’s rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas & Davis, 2005). An accommodation is intended to remove barriers to learning while still expecting that students will master the same instructional content as their typical peers.Accommodation example 1: Students are allowed to supplement silent reading of a novel by listening to the book on tape.Accommodation example 2: For unmotivated students, the instructor breaks larger assignments into smaller ‘chunks’ and providing students with performance feedback and praise for each completed ‘chunk’ of assigned work (Skinner, Pappas & Davis, 2005).
42 “Teaching is giving; it isn’t taking away “Teaching is giving; it isn’t taking away.” (Howell, Hosp & Kurns, 2008; p. 356).“”Source: Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., & Kurns, S. (2008). Best practices in curriculum-based evaluation. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp ). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists..
43 Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations & Modifications: Sorting Them Out Modification. A modification changes the expectations of what a student is expected to know or do—typically by lowering the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated. Examples of modifications:Giving a student five math computation problems for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned to the rest of the classLetting the student consult course notes during a test when peers are not permitted to do so
46 Academic Interventions ‘Critical Components’ Checklist This checklist summarizes the essential components of academic interventions. When preparing a student’s Tier 1, 2, or 3 academic intervention plan, use this document as a ‘pre-flight checklist’ to ensure that the academic intervention is of high quality, is sufficiently strong to address the identified student problem, is fully understood and supported by the teacher, and can be implemented with integrity. NOTE: While the checklist refers to the ‘teacher’ as the interventionist, it can also be used as a guide to ensure the quality of interventions implemented by non-instructional personnel, adult volunteers, parents, and peer (student) tutors.
47 Allocating Sufficient Contact Time & Assuring Appropriate Student-Teacher Ratio The cumulative time set aside for an intervention and the amount of direct teacher contact are two factors that help to determine that intervention’s ‘strength’ (Yeaton & Sechrest, 1981).Critical Item?Intervention ElementNotesTime Allocated. The time set aside for the intervention is appropriate for the type and level of student problem (Burns & Gibbons, 2008; Kratochwill, Clements & Kalymon, 2007). When evaluating whether the amount of time allocated is adequate, consider:Length of each intervention session.Frequency of sessions (e.g.., daily, 3 times per week)Duration of intervention period (e.g., 6 instructional weeks)Student-Teacher Ratio. The student receives sufficient contact from the teacher or other person delivering the intervention to make that intervention effective. NOTE: Generally, supplemental intervention groups should be limited to 6-7 students (Burns & Gibbons, 2008).
48 Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem Academic interventions are not selected at random. First, the student academic problem(s) is defined clearly and in detail. Then, the likely explanations for the academic problem(s) are identified to understand which intervention(s) are likely to help—and which should be avoided.Critical Item?Intervention ElementNotesProblem Definition. The student academic problem(s) to be addressed in the intervention are defined in clear, specific, measureable terms (Bergan, 1995; Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004). The full problem definition describes:Conditions. Describe the environmental conditions or task demands in place when the academic problem is observed.Problem Description. Describe the actual observable academic behavior in which the student is engaged. Include rate, accuracy, or other quantitative information of student performance.Typical or Expected Level of Performance. Provide a typical or expected performance criterion for this skill or behavior. Typical or expected academic performance can be calculated using a variety of sources,
49 Sample Math Problem Identification Statements ConditionsProblem DescriptionTypical/Expected Level of PerformanceWhen shown random number pairs 0-20 during a 1-minute assessment……Charlie can correctly identify 6 number pairs……while the median rate in the 1st grade classroom is 22 number pairs.When shown 20 key vocabulary terms required for grade 4 math performance……Haley can provide correct definitions for 10 terms……while the curriculum expectation is that students will have 100 percent mastery of those terms.
50 Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Critical Item?Intervention ElementNotesAppropriate Target. Selected intervention(s) are appropriate for the identified student problem(s) (Burns, VanDerHeyden & Boice, 2008). TIP: Use the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring et al., 1978) to select academic interventions according to the four stages of learning:Acquisition. The student has begun to learn how to complete the target skill correctly but is not yet accurate in the skill. Interventions should improve accuracy.Fluency. The student is able to complete the target skill accurately but works slowly. Interventions should increase the student’s speed of responding (fluency) as well as to maintain accuracy.Generalization. The student may have acquired the target skill but does not typically use it in the full range of appropriate situations or settings. Or the student may confuse the target skill with ‘similar’ skills. Interventions should get the student to use the skill in the widest possible range of settings and situations, or to accurately discriminate between the target skill and ‘similar’ skills.Adaptation. The student is not yet able to modify or adapt an existing skill to fit novel task-demands or situations. Interventions should help the student to identify key concepts or elements from previously learned skills that can be adapted to the new demands or situations.
51 Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem (Cont.) Critical Item?Intervention ElementNotes‘Can’t Do/Won’t Do’ Check. The teacher has determined whether the student problem is primarily a skill or knowledge deficit (‘can’t do’) or whether student motivation plays a main or supporting role in academic underperformance (‘wont do’). If motivation appears to be a significant factor contributing to the problem, the intervention plan includes strategies to engage the student (e.g., high interest learning activities; rewards/incentives; increased student choice in academic assignments, etc.) (Skinner, Pappas & Davis, 2005; Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004).
52 Activity: Matching the Intervention to the Student Problem In your teams:Consider these critical aspects of academic intervention:Clear and specific problem-identification statement (Conditions, Problem Description, Typical/Expected Level of Performance).Appropriate intervention target (e.g., selected intervention is appropriately matched to Acquisition, Fluency, Generalization, or Adaptation phase of Instructional Hierarchy).Can’t Do/Won’t Do Check (Clarification of whether motivation plays a significant role in student academic underperformance).What steps can your RTI Team and school take to ensure that each of these intervention elements is taken into consideration?
53 Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements These effective ‘building blocks’ of instruction are well-known and well-supported by the research. They should be considered when selecting or creating any academic intervention.Critical Item?Intervention ElementNotesExplicit Instruction. Student skills have been broken down “into manageable and deliberately sequenced steps” and the teacher provided“ overt strategies for students to learn and practice new skills” (Burns, VanDerHeyden & Boice, 2008, p.1153).Appropriate Level of Challenge. The student experienced sufficient success in the academic task(s) to shape learning in the desired direction as well as to maintain student motivation (Burns, VanDerHeyden & Boice, 2008).Active Engagement. The intervention ensures that the student is engaged in ‘active accurate responding’ (Skinner, Pappas & Davis, 2005).at a rate frequent enough to capture student attention and to optimize effective learning.Performance Feedback. The student receives prompt performance feedback about the work completed (Burns, VanDerHeyden & Boice, 2008).Maintenance of Academic Standards. If the intervention includes any accommodations to better support the struggling learner (e.g., preferential seating, breaking a longer assignment into smaller chunks), those accommodations do not substantially lower the academic standards against which the student is to be evaluated and are not likely to reduce the student’s rate of learning (Skinner, Pappas & Davis, 2005).
54 Activity: Incorporating Effective Instructional Elements In your teams:Think about the effective instructional elements reviewed in this workshop.How can your school assist teachers to ensure that effective instructional elements are included in math interventions?Incorporating Effective Instructional ElementsCritical Item?Intervention ElementNotesExplicit Instruction.Appropriate Level of Challenge.Active Engagement..Performance Feedback.Maintenance of Academic Standards.
55 Verifying Teacher Understanding & Providing Teacher Support The teacher is an active agent in the intervention, with primary responsibility for putting it into practice in a busy classroom. It is important, then, that the teacher fully understands how to do the intervention, believes that he or she can do it, and knows whom to seek out if there are problems with the intervention.Critical Item?Intervention ElementNotesTeacher Responsibility. The teacher understands his or her responsibility to implement the academic intervention(s) with integrity.Teacher Acceptability. The teacher states that he or she finds the academic intervention feasible and acceptable for the identified student problem.Step-by-Step Intervention Script. The essential steps of the intervention are written as an ‘intervention script’--a series of clearly described steps—to ensure teacher understanding and make implementation easier (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao & Hawkins, 2008).Intervention Training. If the teacher requires training to carry out the intervention, that training has been arranged.Intervention Elements: Negotiable vs. Non-Negotiable. The teacher knows all of the steps of the intervention. Additionally, the teacher knows which of the intervention steps are ‘non-negotiable’ (they must be completed exactly as designed) and which are ‘negotiable’ (the teacher has some latitude in how to carry out those steps) (Hawkins, Morrison, Musti-Rao & Hawkins, 2008).Assistance With the Intervention. If the intervention cannot be implemented as designed for any reason (e.g., student absence, lack of materials, etc.), the teacher knows how to get assistance quickly to either fix the problem(s) to the current intervention or to change the intervention.
56 Activity: Verifying Teacher Understanding & Providing Teacher Support In your teams:Review the checklist for verifying that teachers understand all elements of the intervention and actively support its use.How will your school ensure that teachers in Tier 1 will understand and support the math interventions such as the example selected by your team?Verifying Teacher Understanding & Providing Teacher SupportCritical Item?Intervention ElementTeacher ResponsibilityTeacher Acceptability.Step-by-Step Intervention Script.Intervention Training.Intervention Elements: Negotiable vs. Non-NegotiableAssistance With the Intervention
57 Documenting the Intervention & Collecting Data Interventions only have meaning if they are done within a larger data-based context. For example, interventions that lack baseline data, goal(s) for improvement, and a progress-monitoring plan are ‘fatally flawed’ (Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004).Critical Item?Intervention ElementNotesIntervention Documentation. The teacher understands and can manage all documentation required for this intervention (e.g., maintaining a log of intervention sessions, etc.).Checkup Date. Before the intervention begins, a future checkup date is selected to review the intervention to determine if it is successful. Time elapsing between the start of the intervention and the checkup date should be short enough to allow a timely review of the intervention but long enough to give the school sufficient time to judge with confidence whether the intervention worked.Baseline. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has collected information about the student’s baseline level of performance in the identified area(s) of academic concern (Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004).Goal. Before the intervention begins, the teacher has set a specific goal for predicted student improvement to use as a minimum standard for success (Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004). The goal is the expected student outcome by the checkup date if the intervention is successful.Progress-Monitoring. During the intervention, the teacher collects progress-monitoring data of sufficient quality and at a sufficient frequency to determine at the checkup date whether that intervention is successful (Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004).
58 Activity: Putting Math Interventions into a ‘Data Context’… In your teams:Appoint a recorder.For the math intervention that your team selected, brainstorm methods to measure student progress.Discuss how teachers would collect baseline data, set a goal for improvement.How frequently should progress-monitoring data be collected?
59 ReferencesBergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.Burns, M. K., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Boice, C. H. (2008). Best practices in intensive academic interventions. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp ). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Haring, N.G., Lovitt, T.C., Eaton, M.D., & Hansen, C.L. (1978). The fourth R: Research in the classroom. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Co.Hawkins, R. O., Morrison, J. Q., Musti-Rao, S., & Hawkins, J. A. (2008). Treatment integrity for academic interventions in real- world settings. School Psychology Forum, 2(3), 1-15.Kratochwill, T. R., Clements, M. A., & Kalymon, K. M. (2007). Response to intervention: Conceptual and methodological issues in implementation. In Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. New York: Springer.Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., & Davis, K. A. (2005). Enhancing academic engagement: Providing opportunities for responding and influencing students to choose to respond. Psychology in the Schools, 42,Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Gilbertson, D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral interventions. A systematic process for finding and eliminating problems. School Psychology Review, 33, Yeaton, W. M. & Sechrest, L. (1981). Critical dimensions in the choice and maintenance of successful treatments: Strength, integrity, and effectiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49,
60 Screening & Monitoring Student Progress at the Secondary Level Jim Wright
61 RTI Literacy: Assessment & Progress-Monitoring To measure student ‘response to instruction/intervention’ effectively, the RTI model measures students’ academic performance and progress on schedules matched to each student’s risk profile and intervention Tier membership.Benchmarking/Universal Screening. All children in a grade level are assessed at least 3 times per year on a common collection of academic assessments.Strategic Monitoring. Students placed in Tier 2 (supplemental) reading groups are assessed 1-2 times per month to gauge their progress with this intervention.Intensive Monitoring. Students who participate in an intensive, individualized Tier 3 intervention are assessed at least once per week.Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools: Procedures to assure scientific-based practices. New York: Routledge.
62 Local Norms: Using a Wide Variety of Data (Stewart & Silberglit, 2008) Local norms can be compiled using:Fluency measures such as Curriculum-Based Measurement.Existing data, such as office disciplinary referrals.Computer-delivered assessments, e.g., Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) fromSource: Stewart, L. H. & Silberglit, B. (2008). Best practices in developing academic local norms. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp ). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
63 Universal Screening at Secondary Schools: Using Existing Data Proactively to Flag ‘Signs of Disengagement’“Across interventions…, a key component to promoting school completion is the systematic monitoring of all students for signs of disengagement, such as attendance and behavior problems, failing courses, off track in terms of credits earned toward graduation, problematic or few close relationships with peers and/or teachers, and then following up with those who are at risk.”Source: Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., & Hess, R. (2008). Best practices in increasing the likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School Psychology - 5th Ed (pp ). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.. p.1090
64 Mining Archival Data: What Are the ‘Early Warning Flags’ of Student Drop-Out? A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were tracked for 8 years. These early warning indicators were found to predict student drop-out in the sixth-grade year:Failure in EnglishFailure in mathMissing at least 20% of school daysReceiving an ‘unsatisfactory’ behavior rating from at least one teacherSource: Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist,42, 223–235. .
65 What is the Predictive Power of These Early Warning Flags? Number of ‘Early Warning Flags’ in Student RecordProbability That Student Would GraduateNone56%136%221%313%47%Source: Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist,42, 223–235. .
66 Curriculum-Based Measurement: Advantages as a Set of Tools to Monitor RTI/Academic Cases Aligns with curriculum-goals and materialsIs reliable and valid (has ‘technical adequacy’)Is criterion-referenced: sets specific performance levels for specific tasksUses standard procedures to prepare materials, administer, and scoreSamples student performance to give objective, observable ‘low-inference’ information about student performanceHas decision rules to help educators to interpret student data and make appropriate instructional decisionsIs efficient to implement in schools (e.g., training can be done quickly; the measures are brief and feasible for classrooms, etc.)Provides data that can be converted into visual displays for ease of communicationSource: Hosp, M.K., Hosp, J. L., & Howell, K. W. (2007). The ABCs of CBM. New York: Guilford.
76 Team Activity: Creating a Screening Plan for Your Middle or High School Review the measures just discussed for screening students at the middle and high school level.Have a discussion about what measures you might use in a screening program for your school. Who would be involved in developing such a screening plan? When would it start?
77 RTI Intervention Teams in Middle & High Schools: Challenges and Opportunities Jim Wright
78 RTI ‘Pyramid of Interventions’ Tier 3: Intensive interventions. Students who are ‘non-responders’ to Tiers I & II may be eligible for special education services, intensive interventions.Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Tier 2: Individualized interventions. Subset of students receive interventions targeting specific needs.Tier 1: Universal interventions. Available to all students in a classroom or school. Can consist of whole-group or individual strategies or supports.
79 Tier 3: Intensive Individualized Interventions Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive offered in a school setting.Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions because:they are found to have a large skill gap when compared to their class or grade peers; and/orThey did not respond to interventions provided previously at Tiers 1 & 2.Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for sessions of 30 minutes. The student-teacher ratio is flexible but should allow the student to receive intensive, individualized instruction.The reading progress of students in Tier 3 interventions is monitored at least weekly.Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.
80 Secondary Level: Classroom Performance Rating Form
81 Tier 3 Interventions Are Developed With Assistance from the School’s RTI (Problem-Solving) Team Effective RTI Teams:Are multi-disciplinary and include classroom teachers among their membersFollow a structured ‘problem-solving’ modelUse data to analyze the academic problem and match the student to effective, evidence-based interventionsDevelop a detailed research-based intervention plan to help staff with implementationCheck up on the teacher’s success in carrying out the intervention (‘intervention integrity’)
82 The Problem-Solving Model & Multi-Disciplinary Teams A school consultative process (‘the problem-solving model’) with roots in applied behavior analysis was developed (e.g., Bergan, 1995) that includes 4 steps:Problem IdentificationProblem AnalysisPlan ImplementationProblem EvaluationOriginally designed for individual consultation with teachers, the problem-solving model was later adapted in various forms to multi-disciplinary team settings.Source: Bergan, J. R. (1995). Evolution of a problem-solving model of consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 6(2),
83 Tier 3 Targets: Intervention, Curriculum, and Environment “For [a tier 3] intervention to be effective and robust, it must focus on the specific needs of the student. It should also address the reason that the student is experiencing difficulty…. Rather than considering a [student] problem to be the result of inalterable student characteristics, teams are compelled to focus on change that can be made to the intervention, curriculum or environment that would result in positive student outcome. The hypothesis and intervention should focus on those variables that are alterable within the school setting. These alterable variables include learning goals and objectives (what is to be learned), materials, time, student-to-teacher ratio, activities, and motivational strategies.” p. 95Source: Burns, M. K., & Gibbons, K. A. (2008). Implementing response-to-intervention in elementary and secondary schools. Routledge: New York.
84 How Is a Secondary RTI Team Like a MASH Unit? The RTI Team must deal with complex situations with limited resources and tight timelines, often being forced to select from among numerous ‘intervention targets’ (e.g., attendance, motivation, basic skill deficits, higher-level deficits in cognitive strategies) when working with struggling students.The ‘problem-solving’ approach is flexible, allowing the RTI Team quickly to sift through a complex student case to identify and address the most important ‘blockers’ to academic success.Timelines for success are often short-term (e.g., to get the student to pass a course or a state test), measured in weeks or months.
85 The RTI Team: Definition Teams of educators at a school are trained to work together as effective problem-solvers.RTI Teams are made up of volunteers drawn from general- and special-education teachers and support staff.These teams use a structured meeting process to identify the underlying reasons that a student might be experiencing academic or behavioral difficultiesThe team helps the referring teacher to put together practical, classroom-friendly interventions to address those student problems.
86 Teachers may be motivated to refer students to the RTI Team because they… can engage in collegial conversations about better ways to help struggling learnerslearn instructional and behavior-management strategies that they can use with similar students in the futureincrease their teaching timeare able to access more intervention resources and supports in the building than if they work alonefeel less isolated when dealing with challenging kidshave help in documenting their intervention efforts
87 Team RolesCoordinatorFacilitatorRecorderTime KeeperCase Manager
88 RTI Team Consultative Process Step 1: Assess Teacher Concerns 5 MinsStep 2: Inventory Student Strengths/Talents 5 MinsStep 3: Review Background/Baseline Data 5 MinsStep 4: Select Target Teacher Concerns 5-10 MinsStep 5: Set Academic and/or Behavioral Outcome Goals and Methods for Progress-Monitoring 5 MinsStep 6: Design an Intervention Plan MinsStep 7: Plan How to Share Meeting Information with the Student’s Parent(s) 5 MinsStep 8: Review Intervention & Monitoring Plans 5 Mins
89 Secondary RTI Teams: Recommendations Secondary RTI Teams should be multi-disciplinary, to include teachers, administration, and support staff (e.g., school psychologist, guidance counselors).Fixed times should be set aside each week for the RTI Team to meet on student referrals.Sufficient time (i.e., 30 minutes) should be reserved for initial student referrals to allow adequate discussion and intervention planning.
90 Secondary RTI Teams: Combining Consistency & Flexibility Schools should ensure that RTI Teams follow a structured problem-solving model.Schools do have flexibility in when and where they use the RTI problem-solving model. For example:If a person (e.g., school psychologist, school administrator) is trained to facilitate an RTI Team meeting, that meeting can be scheduled during shared teacher planning times or during parent-teacher conferences.
92 Small-Group Activity: Complete the RTI Team Effectiveness Self-Rating Scale As a group, use the RTI Team Self-Rating Scale to evaluate your current student problem-solving team’s level of functioning. If your school does not have a formal problem-solving team in place, rate your school’s current informal problem-solving efforts.Appoint a spokesperson to share your findings with the large group.Effective RTI Teams:Are multi-disciplinary and include teachers among their membersFollow a structured ‘problem-solving’ modelUse data to analyze the academic problem and match the student to effective, evidence-based interventionsDevelop a detailed research-based intervention plan to help staff with implementationCheck up on the teacher’s success in carrying out the intervention (‘intervention integrity’)
93 RTI Teams: Improving Problem-Solving Through Effective Case Management Jim Wright
95 Case Manager: RoleMeets with the referring teacher(s) briefly prior to the initial RTI Team meeting to review the teacher referral form, clarify teacher concerns, decide what additional data should be collected on the student.Touches base briefly with the referring teacher(s) after the RTI Team meeting to check that the intervention plan is running smoothly.
96 Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Prior to an initial RTI Problem-Solving Team meeting, it is recommended that a case manager from the RTI Team schedule a brief (15-20 minute) ‘pre-meeting’ with the referring teacher. The purpose of this pre-meeting is for the case manager to share with the teacher the purpose of the upcoming full RTI Team meeting, to clarify student referral concerns, and to decide what data should be collected and brought to the RTI Team meeting.
97 Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Steps Here is a recommended agenda for the case manager-teacher pre-meeting:Explain the purpose of the upcoming RTI Problem-Solving Team meeting: The case manager explains that the RTI Team meeting goals are to (a) fully understand the nature of the student’s academic and/or behavioral problems; (b) develop an evidence-based intervention plan for the student; and (c) set a goal for student improvement and select means to monitor the student’s response to the intervention plan.
98 Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Steps Define the student referral concern(s) in clear, specific terms.. The case manager reviews with the teacher the most important student referral concern(s), helping the teacher to define those concern(s) in clear, specific, observable terms. The teacher is also prompted to prioritize his or her top 1-2 student concerns.
99 Case Manager: Pre-Meeting Steps Decide what data should be brought to the RTI Team meeting. The case manager and teacher decide what student data should be collected and brought to the RTI Team meeting to provide insight into the nature of the student’s presenting concern(s).
102 Case Manager: TipsIf you discover, when you meet with a referring teacher prior to the RTI Team meeting, that his or her concern is vaguely worded, help the teacher to clarify the concern with the question “What does [teacher concern] look like in the classroom?”After the RTI Team meeting, consider sending periodic s to the referring teacher(s) asking them how the intervention is going and inviting them to inform you if they require assistance.
103 Breaking Down Complex Academic Goals into Simpler Sub-Tasks: Discrete Categorization
104 Identifying and Measuring Complex Academic Problems at the Middle and High School Level Students at the secondary level can present with a range of concerns that interfere with academic success.One frequent challenge for these students is the need to reduce complex global academic goals into discrete sub-skills that can be individually measured and tracked over time.
105 Discrete Categorization: A Strategy for Assessing Complex, Multi-Step Student Academic Tasks Definition of Discrete Categorization: ‘Listing a number of behaviors and checking off whether they were performed.’ (Kazdin, 1989, p. 59).Approach allows educators to define a larger ‘behavioral’ goal for a student and to break that goal down into sub-tasks. (Each sub-task should be defined in such a way that it can be scored as ‘successfully accomplished’ or ‘not accomplished’.)The constituent behaviors that make up the larger behavioral goal need not be directly related to each other. For example, ‘completed homework’ may include as sub-tasks ‘wrote down homework assignment correctly’ and ‘created a work plan before starting homework’Source: Kazdin, A. E. (1989). Behavior modification in applied settings (4th ed.). Pacific Gove, CA: Brooks/Cole..
106 Discrete Categorization Example: Math Study Skills General Academic Goal: Improve Tina’s Math Study SkillsTina was struggling in her mathematics course because of poor study skills. The RTI Team and math teacher analyzed Tina’s math study skills and decided that, to study effectively, she needed to:Check her math notes daily for completeness.Review her math notes daily.Start her math homework in a structured school setting.Use a highlighter and ‘margin notes’ to mark questions or areas of confusion in her notes or on the daily assignment.Spend sufficient ‘seat time’ at home each day completing homework.Regularly ask math questions of her teacher.
107 Discrete Categorization Example: Math Study Skills General Academic Goal: Improve Tina’s Math Study SkillsThe RTI Team—with teacher and student input—created the following intervention plan. The student Tina will:Approach the teacher at the end of class for a copy of class note.Check her daily math notes for completeness against a set of teacher notes in 5th period study hall.Review her math notes in 5th period study hall.Start her math homework in 5th period study hall.Use a highlighter and ‘margin notes’ to mark questions or areas of confusion in her notes or on the daily assignment.Enter into her ‘homework log’ the amount of time spent that evening doing homework and noted any questions or areas of confusion.Stop by the math teacher’s classroom during help periods (T & Th only) to ask highlighted questions (or to verify that Tina understood that week’s instructional content) and to review the homework log.
108 Team Activity: Defining the RTI Team ‘Pre-Meeting’ At your table:Discuss how your school can structure the ‘pre-meeting’ in which the case manager and teacher meet to clarify the teacher’s referral concern(s) and to decide what data to bring to the actual RTI Team meeting.Brainstorm ideas for finding the time for such ‘pre-meetings’.
109 RTI Problem-Solving Teams: Promoting Student Involvement Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
110 Intervention Responsibilities: Examples at Teacher, School-Wide, and Student Levels Signed agenda‘Attention’ promptsIndividual review with students during free periodsTake agenda to teacher to be reviewed and signedSeeking help from teachers during free periodsLab services (math, reading, etc.)Remedial courseHomework club
112 RTI: Promoting Student Involvent Schools should strongly consider having middle and high school students attend and take part in their own RTI Problem-Solving Team meetings for two reasons. First, as students mature, their teachers expect that they will take responsibility in advocating for their own learning needs. Second, students are more likely to fully commit to RTI intervention plans if they attend the RTI Team meeting and have a voice in the creation of those plans.
113 RTI: Promoting Student Involvement Before the RTI Team Meeting. The student should be adequately prepared to attend the RTI Team meeting by first engaging in a ‘pre-meeting’ with a school staff member whom the student knows and trusts (e.g., school counselor, teacher, administrator). By connecting the student with a trusted mentor figure who can help that student to navigate the RTI process, the school improves the odds that the disengaged or unmotivated student will feel an increased sense of connection and commitment to their own school performance (Bridgeland, DiIulio, & Morison, 2006).
114 RTI: Promoting Student Involvement A student RTI ‘pre-meeting’ can be quite brief, lasting perhaps minutes. Here is a simple agenda for the meeting:Share information about the student problem(s).Describe the purpose and steps of the RTI Problem-Solving Team meeting.Stress the student’s importance in the intervention plan.Have the student describe his or her learning needs.Invite the student to attend the RTI Team meeting.
116 RTI: Promoting Student Involvement During the RTI Team Meeting. If the student agrees to attend the RTI Team meeting, he or she participates fully in the meeting. Teachers and other staff attending the meeting make an effort to keep the atmosphere positive and focused on finding solutions to the student’s presenting concern(s). As each intervention idea is discussed, the team checks in with the student to determine that the student (a) fully understands how to access or participate in the intervention element being proposed and (b) is willing to take part in that intervention element. If the student appears hesitant or resistant, the team should work with the student either to win the student over to the proposed intervention idea or to find an alternative intervention that will accomplish the same goal.At the end of the RTI Team meeting, each of the intervention ideas that is dependent on student participation for success is copied into the School Success Intervention Plan.
118 RTI: Promoting Student Involvement After the RTI Team Meeting. If the school discovers that the student is not carrying out his or her responsibilities as spelled out by the intervention plan, it is recommended that the staff member assigned as the RTI contact meet with the student and parent. At that meeting, the adult contact checks with the student to make sure that:the intervention plan continues to be relevant and appropriate for addressing the student’s academic or behavioral needsthe student understands and call access all intervention elements outlined on the School Success Intervention Plan.adults participating in the intervention plan (e.g., classroom teachers) are carrying out their parts of the plan.
119 Starting RTI in Your Secondary School: Enlisting students in intervention plans As a team:Talk about strategies to prepare students to be self-advocates in taking responsibility for their own learning.Discuss ways to motivate students to feel comfortable in accessing (and responsible FOR accessing) intervention resources in the school.