Presentation on theme: "ECOLOGYEcologyEcologyEcologyECOLOGY. Ecology comes from the Greek words OIKOS (place where one lives) and LOGOS (study of). Then Ecology means to."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology comes from the Greek words OIKOS (place where one lives) and LOGOS (study of). Then Ecology means to study the place in which we live.
The study of interactions between organisms and the nonliving components of their environment. Ecology specifically means:
Key Theme of Ecology ► ► Interconnectedness – No organism is isolated. ►. ► An organisms survival depends on the interactions with other organisms in their surroundings and with the nonliving components of the environment.
Two Parts of the Environment Biotic Biotic = all living things that affect an organism in its environment. Abiotic Abiotic = nonliving factors (water, soil, etc.)
What biotic and abiotic factors are present in this pond ecosystem?
A pond has plants, algae, insects, bacteria, and fish (biotic). It also has nonliving components such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, soil, and sunlight (abiotic).
Levels of Environmental Organization (from complex to simple) Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Organism
What is a Biosphere? The broadest, most inclusive level of organization. All organisms are found within the biosphere
What is a Biome? An area or region of the world that has a particular climate. For example: specific types of plants like in the desert or in the rainforest. A rainforest makes up a biome.
What is an Ecosystem? An ecosystem includes all living organisms and all nonliving things in one particular place.
Two Types of Ecosystems ► ► Terrestrial Biomes - Land Tundra, Taiga, Deciduous Forest, Temperate grassland, Desert, Savanna, Tropical rainforest ► ► Aquatic Zones - Water Ocean, Freshwater
What is a Community? All the interacting organisms living in one area. Example: All the fish, turtles, plants, algae, and bacteria living in the pond.
What is a Population? Includes all the members of a single species that live in one place. Example: A school of fish
Populations cannot grow nonstop because the environment contains limited resources known as limiting factors. The largest population that an environment can support is known as the carrying capacity.
What is an Organism? An organism is the simplest, least complicated level of organization in our environment. Examples: A single fish or a single individual.
Two Main Types of Species Interactions Predation Predator Prey Symbiotic Parasitism Mutualism Commensalism
Predator and Prey The organism that is eaten is the prey. The organism that does the eating is the predator.
Parasitism –one organism benefits while the other is harmed. - Mutualism - both organisms benefit. Commensalism – one organism benefits and the other is unaffected. Three Types of Symbiotic Relationships
Parasitism The tapeworm attaches to human intestine and feeds off our digested nutrients. The worm benefits while the person is harmed. The worm is the parasite and the person is the host.
Mutualism The sea anemone and the clownfish.. The fish uses the anemone for protection, and in return, the fish brings scraps of food to the anemone and lures larger fish into the anemone’s tentacles. Both benefit.
Commensalism The egret rides on the buffalo back feeding on small animals such as insects and lizards that are forced out of hiding as the buffalo moves through the grass. One benefits, one does not care.