Presentation on theme: "The Battles for the Pacific. Japanese Advances Within Six months after Pearl Harbor, Japan dwarfed the German Empire by taking the following: Hong Kong."— Presentation transcript:
Japanese Advances Within Six months after Pearl Harbor, Japan dwarfed the German Empire by taking the following: Hong Kong French Indochina Malaya Burma Thailand Half of China Formosa Dutch East Indies Guam Wake Solomon Islands 2 Aleutian Islands
Japan takes the Philippines December 1941 to May 1942 Gen. MacArthur held out for 4 months w/ 31,000 US troops and 110,000 under-trained and ill-equipped Filipino troops as 200,000 Japanese troops invaded MacArthur abandoned, he and officers escaped to Australia, as he left he stated: “I shall return.” American and Philippine troops suffered 14,000 KIA, 48,000 wounded, and approx. 80,000 endured cruel imprisonment or execution at the hands of the Japanese
Battle of Coral Sea May 1942 America/Australia intercepted info that Japan was going to leave from New Guinea to invade Australia Significance: First battle where ships never saw each other, airplanes played large role First Halt of Japanese since Pearl Harbor Allies lost more ships, but Japan ran out of fuel to continue to Australia 543 American causalities
Battle of Midway June 1942 US intercepted messages of Japanese naval force (largest assembled in history) heading toward Midway Goal: continue to finish off Pearl Harbor US was outnumbered 4 to 1 in ships and planes, but the US commander prepared a surprise reception
Battle of Midway By the end, Japan lost: 4 “irreplaceable” aircraft carriers A cruiser 322 Planes American Casualties - 307
What strategy should the US take to defeat the Japanese?
US Strategy Can go hundreds of miles without seeing land Japanese dug in on hundreds of islands scattered over thousands of miles of ocean Too costly to storm each one Strategy: Bypass Japanese strongholds Seize well fortified Islands, build airfields, cut off enemy supply lines
Battle of Guadalcanal August 1942 Significance: First US land offensive First Japanese defeat on land 6 months until Japanese abandoned island, known as “Island of Death.” US had 6,000 casualties, 1600 dead
Battle of Guam July 1944 (Mariana Islands – includes Saipan and Tinian) Guam was formerly a US possession until Japan took it in 1941 Strategic Importance great for Airbases Almost can fly from Guam to Tokyo Approx. 3,000 Americans killed; 7,122 wounded
Second Battle of the Philippines: Battle for Leyte Gulf October 1944 Significance: MacArthur wanted revenge for 1 st battle “People of the Philippines, I have returned.” First testing of the Kamikaze (suicide plane), 424 Kamikaze planes sank 16 ships, damaged 80 Disaster for Japanese – huge loss of naval force (3 ships, 13 cruisers, 400 planes) Arguments over necessity cut off Japan from western possessions Did not really use it for US military purposes cost well over 2,000 American lives
Battle of Iwo Jima Feb 19-March 26, 1945 “Ugly, smelly glob of cold lava squatting in a surly ocean.” Strategic Importance: critical as an air base from which heavily loaded bombers could reach Japan. Kamikazes would not be able to depart from here Emergency landing strip from Mariana Islands to Japan
Iwo Jima Contd. Most heavily defended spot on earth 20,700 Japanese troops deeply entrenched in tunnels and caves. U.S. personnel 6,821 Killed 19,217 Wounded 2,648 Combat Fatigue Total 28,686 Japanese approx. 20,000 killed
Battle of Okinawa “Operation Iceburg” April 1, 1945-June 22, 1945 April 12, 1945 – FDR dies 4 airfields on the island that America needed to control Location ½ the distance to Japan than of Iwo Jima much closer for invasion of Japan Land and Naval fights Kamikazes did serious damage sank over 30 allied ships and killing 5,000 Navy men.
Okinawa – The Bloodiest US losses 50,000 casualties 12,000 KIA Huge rate of Non-Combat losses ie. Stress Japanese losses ~107,000 KIA Civilian losses estimates around or above 100,000
What comes next? What do you think the casualties will be like?