2 The Central DogmaStates: Genetic information flows in one direction from DNA to RNA to proteins.replicationtranscriptionIncludes 3 processes:ReplicationTranscriptionTranslationtranslationRNA is the link between DNA and proteins.
3 Ribonucleic Acid Single nucleotide strand Sugar: Ribose 4 Bases: A: AdenineG: GuanineC: CytosineU: UracilU replaces TThree Types of RNA
4 Messenger RNA AKA: mRNA Function: Copies a section of the DNA code and moves to a ribosomeLink between DNA and proteinsAllows ribosome to create a proteinLocation: Starts in nucleus… moves to ribosome
5 Transfer RNAAmino acidProlineAmino acidSerineAKA: tRNAFunction: Transfers amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomeRibosome will link amino acids together to form a proteinLocation: Cytoplasm
7 Transcription U| C| A| A| U| C| A| U| U| C| G| G| G| Defined: Process of making mRNA from a sequence of DNAStep 1: RNA Polymerase separates the DNA nucelotidesStep 2: Free floating RNA nucleotides match with the DNAReminder: U replaces TStep 3: mRNA breaks free in separate piecesStep 4: mRNA processing takes placeUnused portions (introns) are removed and the used portions (exons) bond togetherStep 5: Final mRNA strand travels to ribosomeStep 6: DNA recombines to be used againG|C|A|A|G|U|C|A|U|U|C|
8 Step 5 & 6: mRNA travels to ribosome and DNA reconnects Step 2: Free floating mRNAnucleotides match upStep 4: mRNA Processing (exons bond together)Step 1: RNA polymerase splits the DNAStep 3: mRNA breaks free in separate piecesRNApolymerase
11 DNA & RNA Comparison DNA vs. RNA Replication vs. Transcription # of strands: Two (Double)Sugar: DeoxyriboseBases: A T C GLocation: Nucleus# of strands: One (Single)Sugar: RiboseBases: A U C GLocation: Nucleus & CytoplasmReplication vs TranscriptionEnzymes: DNA Helicase and DNA PolymeraseBase pairing rules:A=T, G=CCopies: DNAOnly one copy of DNA is madeLocation: NucleusEnzymes: RNA PolymeraseBase pairing rules:A=U, G=CCopies: a geneMany copies and types of RNA are madeLocation: Nucleus
12 Review Name three different ways that DNA and RNA differ. Which RNA: is found inside the nucleus?transports amino acids to the ribosome?exits the nucleus to the ribosome?copies the DNA code?makes up the structure of ribosomes?Perform transcription by using the following piece of DNA. Introns are underlined. Write the final strand of mRNA created.T A C C G T A C A A T G G G A T C