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Introduction on How to Write Essays By Mr Daniel Hansson.

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1 Introduction on How to Write Essays By Mr Daniel Hansson

2 Structure of the Essay Introduction Body Conclusion

3 Introduction State the aim of your essay (not always necessary if the thesis is implicitly clear) Include definitions, if necessary Keep it short (maximum three sentences recommended)

4 Body Explain theories/concepts Illustrate with study/studies (Aim, procedure, findings) Comment on the methodology of the studies (limitations, strengths, conclusion – to what extent do they support the theory?) Evaluate the theory/concept (limitations and strengths of theory)

5 Types of IB Psychology Essays Examine/Discuss/Evaluate/To what extent… Compare… Contrast… Compare and contrast…

6 Examine/Discuss/ Evaluate/To What Extent… Describe and explain theories, concepts and studies Evaluate theories and studies Compare/contrast theories, if relevant Define important concepts when necessary

7 Compare and Contrast Outline theories/concepts and studies Compare and contrast theories - 3-4 similarities/differences Define important concepts when necessary

8 Compare and Contrast Compare: Similarities between concepts Contrast: Differences between concepts Compare and contrast: Similarities and differences between concepts

9 Similarities and Differences to Consider Validity of the evidence Explanations Type of evidence supporting the theories Applications

10 Evaluation/Comparison About as much on strengths as on limitations About as much on similarities as on differences

11 Conclusion Answer the aim by making a judgment: Is the evidence strong enough to draw a conclusion? Which side do the evidence favor? To what extent? With any modifications? If the evidence favor both positions, choose the middle position between the extremes Implications of the conclusion (Applications, contribution to our understanding of behavior, future research)

12 Conclusion Tolerate uncertainty, do not overestimate findings or draw too bold conclusions You may have a concluding sentence or quote that summarizes the main idea of your essay

13 Basic Structure of Timed essays Aim of essay Definitions Explanation of theory Supporting/challenging studies Relevant analysis of studies (strengths and weaknesses, why do they support/challenge the theory) Discussion/comparison of theory Conclusion

14 Other Tips Don’t forget to always state the year and researcher name (s) of a theory/study Divide into paragraphs. One idea per paragraph Formal language (no slang, appropriate wording)

15 Other Tips Never say that a study disproves or refutes a theory, only that it challenges/opposes or supports it. Use a neat handwriting. If it cannot be read it cannot be marked. Make it enjoyable to read. Create a good text flow. Be positive.

16 Other Tips Do not get too stuck in details of studies or theories. Keep track of time. Only do necessary evaluations. (e.g. sometimes ethical evaluation is not necessary). Stick to the point (answer the question).

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