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The French and Indian War

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1 The French and Indian War
Unit 2 Lesson 2

2 The Ohio Valley The Ohio Valley stretches about 1,000 miles along the Ohio River, from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River. Lands claimed by both France and Britain

3 The Ohio Valley

4 Conflicts in the Ohio Valley
French traders made large profits (money left over after a business pays its costs) in the Ohio Valley. Native Americans  furs British traders made profits from trading with Native Americans, too. Colonies growing  wanted lands in OH Valley to farm and settle

5 Conflicts in the Ohio Valley
Native Americans traded for European goods. Cloth, iron tools, guns Began to depend on these goods Native Americans traded with both the French and British. Others traded with only one European group.

6 Conflicts in the Ohio Valley
Forced to choose sides as conflicts grew between the British and French Would have to decide if they wanted to stay in the OH Valley or flee to escape war

7 War Breaks Out Early 1750s  French began building forts in the eastern OH Valley Sent soldiers to drive the British out of the region British viewed this as an act of war.

8 The First Battle 1754  British sent 150 soldiers to the OH Valley
Led by George Washington Young officer from the British colony of Virginia Virginians planned to attack Fort Duquesne (French fort) They defeated a small group of French soldiers and their Native American allies. Allies  people or groups that join together for a common cause

9 The First Battle Washington feared a larger attack.
Virginians quickly built Fort Necessity. Attacked and Washington was defeated The French allowed the Virginians to leave. These events marked the start of the French and Indian War.

10 The First Battle By 1756, the French and Indian War had become part of a larger conflict. The Seven Years’ War French and British began fighting each other in Europe and Asia as well.

11 Forming Alliances Most Native Americans who stayed in the Ohio Valley formed alliances with the French or the British. Alliance  a formal agreement among groups or individuals Algonquian tribes = French Feared British colonists would drive them from their lands Wanted to fight against the Iroquois Iroquois = British

12 Early Defeats for Britain
April 1755  British General Edward Braddock led 1,800 soldiers to attack Fort Duquesne. British were trained to fight in open fields. They soon learned French soldiers fought like their Native American allies Hid in the forests and fried from behind trees and rocks This way of fighting took British by surprise. General Braddock was killed in battle.

13 O h i o V a l l e y

14 The Fall of New France Britain sent more soldiers to the colonies.
By 1758, they began winning the war. Captured several French forts Defeated the French at Quebec and Montreal British were too strong despite Spanish-French alliance 1763  French surrendered and signed the Treaty of Paris Treaty  an agreement between nations about peace, trade, or other matters

15 Treaty of Paris

16 A Troubled Frontier The French lost nearly all their lands in North America as a result of the Treaty of Paris. French land east of Mississippi River to Britain Spain gave Florida to Britain but gained all French lands west of the Mississippi River British colonists eager to settle in the frontier (lands beyond settled areas) Native Americans hoped British would protect their land. Summary (start 10:12)

17 Treaty of Paris

18 The Proclamation of 1763 1763  an Ottawa chief named Pontiac united tribes in the Ohio Valley region Tribes attacked British settlements and forts Pontiac’s Rebellion Rebellion  a fight against a government

19 The Proclamation of 1763 British King George III tried to end the fighting between the Native Americans and colonists. 1763  made a proclamation (public announcement) that all lands west of the Appalachian Mountains belonged to the Native Americans Settlers there were told to leave. Most ignored the king’s proclamation and conflict continued.

20 The Proclamation of 1763

21 Paying for the War British leaders needed more money:
To pay for the war To defend and control their North American lands The British government decided that the colonists should help pay these costs. 1764  the British government ordered the colonists to pay more taxes Tax  money a government collects from citizens Colonists grew angry with the British government for raising taxes.

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