Thermosphere - the atmospheric layer above the mesosphere. Mesosphere - coldest layer of the atmosphere that extends upward from the stratosphere to an altitude of about 80 km. Stratosphere - layer of the atmosphere that extends upward from the troposphere to an altitude of 50 km; contains most atmospheric ozone. Troposphere - atmospheric layer closest to the earth’s surface where nearly all weather occurs.
Air Pollution Temperature Inversion – atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth’s surface.
Conduction, Convection and Radiation Conduction – type of energy transfer in which vibrating molecules pass heat along to other vibrating molecules by direct contact. Convection – transfer of heat through the movement of a fluid material. Radiation - energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles.
Barometers Units of Standard Atmospheric Pressure: –760 mm –29.92 in of Mg –1 atmosphere –1000 millibars (mb) Mercurial Barometer Mercurial Barometer
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Conduction – direct contact Convection – movement of a fluid, such as air Radiation – no direct contact
The Atmosphere and Solar Radiation About 70% of the solar energy that reach Earth is absorbed by land, water, and atmosphere. 30% is reflected back into space. –Scattering – deflection of solar radiation –Albedo – percentage of solar radiation reflected off a surface Earth’s total albedo = 30%
The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming How are people speeding up the Greenhouse Effect? –Pollution –Cars –Factories –Increased population –Cutting down trees –Burning fossil fuels Are people causing global warming and the greenhouse effect?