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Motion & Forces

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Speed & Velocity Speed - the rate of change in position over time (distance/time) Instantaneous speed Average speed How is velocity different from speed? Velocity describes both speed and direction

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Change in Velocity What makes an object change velocity?

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**Force Push or Pull Forces can cause a change in velocity Examples:**

Gravity Magnetism Friction

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**Balanced Forces Forces that act on the same object**

are opposite in direction are equal in size

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**Balanced Forces Book on table Net force is zero**

Weight of the book is downward force caused by gravity Table pushes back with an equal and opposite force Net force is zero

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**Unbalanced Forces CHANGE IN VELOCITY ACCELERATION**

Forces that are NOT opposite and equal What do they cause? CHANGE IN VELOCITY ACCELERATION

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**Friction Force that opposes motion between 2 surfaces Depends on the:**

types of surfaces force between the surfaces

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**Types of Friction Fluid friction: (Submarine)**

Static Friction: (Couch Potato) Force between objects at rest Sliding Friction: (Ice skating) Solid surfaces slide over each other Rolling Friction: (Rollerblading) An object rolls over a surface. Fluid friction: (Submarine) An object moves through a fluid

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**Friction Friction is greater... between rough surfaces**

when there’s greater force between surfaces (such as more weight)

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Lubricant Changes sliding friction into fluid friction

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Friction Is friction always bad?

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Gravity The attractive force between all objects in the universe

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**Acceleration of Gravity**

Near the surface of the earth the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s/s

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Newton’s 1st Law An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion will continue moving at a constant velocity unless acted on by unbalanced forces.

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**Newton’s Laws of Motion**

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**Newton’s 1st Law INERTIA**

tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion increases as mass increases

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Newton‘s 2nd Law If more force is applied, an object will be accelerated _____ more

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**Force = mass X acceleration**

Newton’s 2nd Law More force means more acceleration More mass means less acceleration Force = mass X acceleration F = ma

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Newton’s 3rd Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Forces occur only in pairs Act on different objects Equal and opposite

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**Newton’s 3rd Law The hammer exerts a force on the nail to the right.**

The nail exerts an equal but opposite force on the hammer to the left.

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Momentum

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Terminal Velocity The final speed of a falling object.

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Terminal Velocity Air resistance is offsetting the the weight of the object

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Forces End

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**Force Aristotle's idea:**

For an object to move at a constant speed, a constant force must be applied.

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Force Newton’s idea: An object moving at a constant speed will continue at that speed without additional force being applied.

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Balanced Forces

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