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Development and Care of Infants

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Presentation on theme: "Development and Care of Infants"— Presentation transcript:

1 Development and Care of Infants
Birth-12 Months

2 Physical Development Growth in size and weight
Increased ability to control & coordinate body movements Never in a lifetime will anyone grow as fast as they do during infancy

3 Patterns of Physical Development
Head to Foot Develop control of head and neck muscles first, then control of muscles move down baby and end with control of legs and feet Near to Far Development begins at trunk and moves outward to hands and feet Simple to Complex Large muscles develop first, then more fine muscles and complex abilities later

4 Categories of Growth & Development First Year
Weight Gain is one of the best signs of good health Most babies lose 10% of birth weight in the first five days of life Afterward, they gain weight rapidly Gain 1-2 pounds per month in the first 6 months Gain about 1 pound a month in the next 6 months Average weight of one year old is lbs

5 Growth Chart C:\Users\Jenifer\Desktop\Growth Chart.pdf

6 Categories, cont’d Length instead of height because babies are measured while lying down Average baby is 20 inches at birth Boys are slightly longer than girls Average baby at one year is 30 inches long

7 Body Shape Hold themselves in a tightly secured position with fists clenched Skinny arms and legs, large abdomen Navel cord usually falls off in three weeks Body straightens out during the first six months

8 Proportion Proportion relates to size relationship between different parts of the body Baby’s head and abdomen are large, and the legs and arms are short and small Skull has fontanels

9 Categories, cont’d.

10 Vision Improves rapidly during the first year
Is blurry at birth, but within a week or so, infant is aware of surroundings By one month, infant can focus on objects as far away as 3 feet By six months, eyesight reaches the sharpness of adult vision

11 Hearing Develops before birth Can tell the direction of sound
Language develops with hearing spoken words

12 Touch Baby relies on touch of others to teach them about the environment Relies on touch for exploration Touch becomes a more important sense for learning as his/her first year progresses

13 Smell and Taste Develop after birth
Within 10 days they can distinguish mother from any other person by smell Two week old babies can tell the difference between water, sour, sugar, salt, and milk

14 Voice Shrill but softens as lungs mature
Change in voice results from physical growth of throat muscles, tongue, lips, teeth, and vocal cords Change in tongue and in the shape and proportion of the inside of the mouth during first months lead to speech development

15 Motor Skills* At birth babies have little control over their muscles
Gross motor skills involve using large muscles (arms and legs) Fine motor skills involve using small muscles (hands and fingers) Milestones of gross and fine motor skills occur

16 Reflexes At birth, babies have an automatic set of reflexes to help them survive GRASP: Makes a fist over object placed in hand ROOTING: When cheek is stroked, baby turns toward the side stroked with open mouth STARTLE: When baby’s position changes quickly or a loud noise occurs baby throws head back, arms out, and arches back

17 Reflexes (cont’d) BABINSKI: Baby’s foot is stroked and toes fan out, foot twists inward SUCKING: when something put in baby’s mouth

18 Influences on Physical Development
Heredity-provides a unique combination of genes from parents Good nutrition, essential nutrients, key to lifelong health Staying healthy closely related to eating well and having energy to be active Experience is important key to development A stimulating environment (variety of things to see, smell, hear, taste, and touch) enhance development

19 Infant Physical Care Handling-head and neck support Feeding-
Breast vs bottle Burping (every 2-3 ounces, or when switch sides) Introducing solid foods (4-6 months) Food Teeth-teething and care Bathing-sponge bath and tub bath Dressing-comfort, climate appropriate

20 Infant Physical Care (cont’d)
Diapering-disposable and cloth diapers, changing steps Sleeping-routines and proper position (back) Medical care-wellness checkups 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 months

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